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Acids and Bases: Buffers

Terms

Buffers

Buffered Solutions

Acid  -  A substance that has the potential to donate a proton or accept an electron pair.
Acidic  -  Having a pH less than 7.
Base  -  A substance that can accept a proton, release OH-, or donate an electron pair.
Basic  -  Having a pH greater than 7.
Buffer  -  A solution composed of an acid and its conjugate base that serves to moderate the pH of the solution.
Conjugate Acid  -  A molecule that can be described as a base that has gained one proton.
Conjugate Base  -  A molecule that can be described as an acid that has lost one proton.
Dissociate  -  Separate into its ion constituents.
Indicator  -  A molecule whose conjugate acid or conjugate base has a different color.
pH  -  A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, it is equal to - log [H+].
pK a  -  A measure of the strength of an acid, it is equal to – log K a, where K a is the acid dissociation constant in water.
pK b  -  A measure of the strength of a base, it is equal to – log K b, where K b is the base dissociation constant in water.
Strong Acid  -  An acid with a pK a less than zero. Strong acids completely dissociate in water.
Strong Base  -  A base with a pK b less than zero. Strong bases completely dissociate in water.
Titration  -  An experiment that neutralizes an unknown amount of acid or base with a known volume and concentration of acid or base to determine the amount of unknown acid or base.
Weak Acid  -  An acid with a pK a greater than zero. Weak acids do not completely dissociate in water.
Weak Base  -  A base with a pK b greater than zero. Weak bases do not completely dissociate in water.

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