The study of the exchange between electrical and chemical energy.
A galvanic cell or cells connected in series with a constant amount of
reagents. A battery stores energy in the form of electrical potential energy.
Process by which materials, usually metals, are purified by means of an
electrolytic cell. The anode is the impure metal and the
cathode is a very pure sample of the metal.
The loss of an electron from a species (an increase in its oxidation
A conceptual bookkeeping numbering system that allows us to track the
number electrons transferred during a redox reaction. The rules for
determining the oxidation number of a species are discussed in Galvanic
The gain of an electron by a species (a decrease in oxidation number).
A reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from the
reducing agent to the oxidizing agent.
A reactant in a redox reaction that donates an electron to the
reduced species. The reducing agent is oxidized.
A reactant in a redox reaction that accepts an electron from the
oxidized species. The oxidizing agent is reduced.
An electrochemical cell with a positive cell potential that allows
chemical energy to be converted into electrical energy.
The overall electrical potential of an electrochemical cell. It is the sum
of the reduction potential of the cathode and the
oxidation potential of the anode.
The potential of a half-reaction written as an oxidation reaction, it is the opposite sign of the same reaction written as a
Arbitrarily setting the potential of the standard hydrogen electrode, SHE,
discussed in Galvanic Cells, to zero, all other half reactions
are measured by their power to reduce hydrogen. The voltage given by the construction of a galvanic cell
between the SHE and the reduction of interest gives the standard reduction potential of that reduction.
Force over a distance.
A cell that consumes electrical energy to drive a non-spontaneous redox reaction.