An ion with a net negative charge.
An orbital, associated with only one particular atom, in which electrons reside.
Though they are called orbitals, atomic orbitals should not be conceived as akin
to the orbits of planets rather around a star. Instead, orbitals describe a locus of
space in which an electron is likely to reside. Each orbital can hold up to two electrons.
German for "building up", a systematic procedure for determining the
electron configuration of any atom. Incorporates the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund's Rule.
An ion with a net positive charge.
Orbitals with identical energies.
A negatively charged elementary particle of mass
of an unbonded atom move around the atomic nucleus in orbitals. Those
electrons in the orbitals furthest from the nucleus are the highest in energy,
play a crucial role in chemical processes such as bonding, and are called
The energy change in an atom when it gains an electron.
A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself. Incorporates the atom's ionization energy and electron affinity.
A rule which says that, when choosing between orbitals, electrons prefer to go in separate orbitals of the same energy. In this way, every orbital within a particular shell (or subshell when the orbitals are not degenerate) will be ha
lf-filled before any single one orbital becomes completely filled.
Any atom or molecule with a net charge.
The energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom.
Description for two elemental species with the same electronic configuration.
Atoms with the same number of protons (i.e. same atomic number) but a different
number of neutrons.
An uncharged atomic particle of mass
. It resides in the nucleus.
The small, dense central region of an atom around which electrons orbit. The
nucleus is made up of
protons and neutrons.
The cardinal rule of bonding. The octet rule states that atoms gain stability when they have a full complement of 8 electrons in their valence shells.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
States that no two electrons in an atom or molecule can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
A positively charged particle of mass
. Protons reside in the nucleus.
The four numbers that define each particular electron of an atom. The Principle Quantum Number
(n) describes the electrons' energy and distance from the nucleus. The Angular
Momentum Quantum Number (l) describes the shape of the orbital in which the
electron resides. The Magnetic Quantum Number (m describes the orientation of the
orbital in space. The Spin Quantum number describes whether the spin of the electron is
positive or negative.
A group of subshells of similar energy levels. For example, 2s and 2p subshells occupy the same shell. Indicated by the principle quantum number.
When the attraction from the nucleus felt by one electron is lessened or blocked by intermediate electrons. Shielding can split degenerate orbitals. For example, since s-orbital electrons shield for p-orbital electrons and rece
ive little shielding themselves, s-orbitals are usually of lower energy level than p-orbitals of the same shell.
Through shielding, the breaking of degenerate orbitals within a shell in multi-electron atoms.
Orbitals of the same subshell are of the same shape and energy. p-orbitals are of the same subshell, while s-orbitals are of a separate subshell. Indicated by the angular momentum quantum number.
A tenet of quantum mechanics that says that the
and momentum of any particle cannot both be known precisely at the same time.
The electrons in the outermost energy shell of an atom. The configuration of these electrons determine the chemical properties of the element.
The highest energy shell in an atom, containing valence electrons. All interactions between atoms take place through the electrons of the valence shell.