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Reaction Kinetics: Rate Laws

Terms

Rate Laws

Fundamentals of Rate Laws

Absorbance Spectroscopy  -  An analytical technique that shines light of one particular wavelength through a sample cell to test what percentage of the incoming light is absorbed. By comparing that absorbance datum to absorbances for cells of known concentration, you can calculate the unknown concentration.
Half-Life  -  The time necessary for the consumption or decay of half of the limiting reagent.
Integrated Rate Law  -  The integral (a calculus operation) of the rate law, this form of the rate law shows the dependence of the concentration of reactants on time of reaction.
Kinetics  -  The study of the rate and mechanism of chemical reactions.
Method of Initial Rates  -  A series of experiments wherein the concentration of one reagent at a time is varied and the initial rate (rate at time zero) of the reaction is measured. By comparing the change in concentration to the change in rate, it is possible to determine the order of the reaction in each reagent.
Order  -  In the rate law of a reaction, the power to which the concentration of a reagent is raised. Or, the sum of the powers on the concentration terms in the rate law.
Quench  -  To quickly stop a reaction by one of several means which include flash freezing and adding an inhibitor. Or, to quickly drive a reaction to completion by adding the limiting reagent in excess.
Rate  -  The speed of a reaction measured in amount or reagent consumed or product produced per unit time.
Rate Constant  -  The proportionality constant in the rate law expression. This factor is a measure of the intrinsic reactivity of the reaction but is not constant with respect to temperature.
Rate Law  -  An expression of the dependence of the rate of a reaction on the concentrations of reactants.

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