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Contents

Key Facts

full title ·  Happy Days

author · Samuel Beckett

type of work · Drama

genre · Absurdist drama/comedy

language · English

time and place written · Paris, early 60s

date of first production · New York, 1961

publisher · Grove Press

narrator · No narrator; drama

climax · The climax occurs when Winnie sings her song after Willie crawls out to meet her

protagonist · Winnie

antagonist · The environment, time, and, to a lesser extent, Willie

setting (time) · Modern day

setting (place) · A piece of earth in the middle of nowhere

point of view · The audience sides with Winnie, who speaks the bulk of the play's lines

falling action · Winnie and Willie stare at each other in silence

tense · Play; present tense

foreshadowing · Winnie expresses eagerness for death and she also frequently alludes to the song, which she likes to sing before sleep

tone · Absurdly comic, philosophical

themes · Loneliness and the Need for Companionship; Stasis Masquerading as Change; Failure and Emptiness of Language

motifs · Approach of Death

symbols · Black Bag

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