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The Death of an Art Form

The Death of an Art Form

The Death of an Art Form

The Death of an Art Form

Spirited Away stands apart from other animated movies because it is hand-drawn—not computer-generated—a method of animation that is nearly extinct in the United States. In early filmmaking, all animation was hand-drawn and was almost as simple as the flip books from which animation evolved. Because moving pictures were in their infancy, animated films of this time often looked jerky. The characters bobbed along awkwardly, and backgrounds were jumpy or nonexistent. As film and filming techniques became more sophisticated, so did animation. However, the basic technique of drawing animation has remained the same. Artists draw and paint single pictures, called frames, which are then filmed in order. The work is tedious, time consuming, and tends to be expensive because of its high labor costs. Just as with other labor-intensive industries, technology seemed an answer to the rising costs of production.

In the early 1980s, filmmakers began to use computer animation to fill in backgrounds and add special effects. One of the first animated features to effectively combine a roughly equal measure of computer generated images (CGI) and hand-drawn animation was Disney’s Beauty and the Beast, released in 1991. Then, in 1995, Toy Story became the first movie created wholly on computer. CGI now dominates American animation. In fact, in early 2004 Disney closed its hand-drawn animation studio, signaling a complete shift from hand-drawn animation to CGI. While most recent CGI films have done well at the box-office, other films, featuring either hand-drawn animation or a combination of CGI and hand-drawn animation, have fared poorly. Two films relying on hand-drawn animation, Atlantis: The Lost Empire and Spirit: Stallion of Cimarron, were box-office flops; Disney reasoned the failure was due to the fact that young American audiences, who have grown up on video games, have no interest in non-CGI films.

While CGI can be impressive because the image it produces is three-dimensional rather than two-dimensional, its look is very different from hand-drawn animation. In fact, the two are actually different mediums. The difference between them is comparable to the difference between hand-drawn illustrations and Clip Art, or between oil paintings and photographs. Japanese animation studios have begun using some CGI technology, but hand-drawn animation remains the primary medium of anime.

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About Haku and Chihiro

by bbluecheese, April 25, 2013

Although this page puts it that Chihiro and Haku share a purely platonic, brother/sister love, this is not true. For one thing, it just doesn't seem like it in the movie. For another, and more importantly, when the movie is played in Chinese, the boiler man (or Zeniba, I forget who) refers to Haku as Chihiro's 男朋友 which means boyfriend. So definitely, romantic relationship there.


15 out of 21 people found this helpful

The train

by MadClairvoyant, September 15, 2013

I always wondered why Kamaji told Chihiro that the train used to go two ways, yet it only goes one way now. He could have just told her that it goes one way, right?

Does the conjecture; the train symbolises going to the afterlife, and that our lack of belief has caused it to become a one way trip, make sense?


8 out of 9 people found this helpful

More of a question

by Panojevic, January 05, 2015

When Chihiro and her parents exited the amusement park and entered their car, why was it filled with leaves and branches, just as if they left the car for several months in the woods? I also noticed that the vegetation had grown substantially. Maybe I am mistaken or time runs differently in the spirit world, any thoughts?


4 out of 5 people found this helpful

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