An enzyme capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid esters,
alkaline phosphatase is found in the teeth, bone, plasma, kidney, and intestine.
A form of anemia that exhibits a deficiency in all elements of the blood,
aplastic anemia can be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation, or
The delicate mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the
inside of the eyelids
A tenth of a liter. The symbol for deciliter is dL.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of reducing agents from reduced
glutathione to hydrogen peroxide, which protects cells and membranes against
A unit equal to one thousandth of a kilogram. The symbol for gram is g or gm.
The iron-containing part of hemoglobin where it is found in red blood cells
bound to a protein globulin.
A hereditary disorder in which there is an excessive absorption and storage of
iron. This can lead to damage of organs such as the liver, pancreas, and
A substance in red blood cells that is responsible for its color. It is
composed of a pigment called heme bound to the protein globulin. Hemoglobin
transports oxygen through the blood.
The destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes). This usually leads to
The process of addition of the hydroxyl (OH) radical
A condition of excessive protein in the blood
A condition of abnormally low protein in the blood
A blood cell that contains a nucleus, also known as white blood cell. The three
major types of leukocytes are granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
Leukocytes are involved in the immune system, protecting the body against
One of the unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for growth but cannot be
synthesized by the body. Linoleic acid is mainly found in corn and soybean oil.
An essential fatty acid
A unit of volume equal to the volume occupied by one kilogram of water at 4
degrees Celsius and 760 millimeters of mercury pressure. It is also used to
describe a cubic decimeter.
A form of anemia that is characterized by abnormally large red blood cells. It
is usually caused by folic acid and/or vitamin B12 deficiency.
A form of anemia that is characterized by abnormally small red blood cells and
low circulating levels of hemoglobin
A millionth of a gram. The symbol is mcg.
A unit of measure that is one millionth of a mole. A mole is an amount of a
substance with a weight in grams equal to the molecular weight of the substance.
A thousandth of a gram. The symbol is mg.
A billionth of a gram. The symbol is ng.
A degeneration of the outer tissue of the kidney tubules.
A trillionth of a gram. The symbol is pg.
A pigment that is a con constituent of hemoglobin, myohemoglobin,
cytochromes, and chlorophyll.
This adjective refers to cells known as phagocytes, such as macrophages and
monocytes. These defend against microbial infection and with the removal of
worn-out blood cells.
A lipid alcohol that functions in the retinal of the eye. Vitamin A is a
generic term for a group of compounds that have the biological activity of
retinol. Sometimes the terms are used synonymously but retinol is actually the
'preformed vitamin A' found in animal products.
A protein that binds iron and transports it in blood
The presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds
in the blood. This can occur in kidney failure when the kidney cannot excrete
the waste products in the urine.
An inborn error in copper metabolism in which there is a deficiency of
ceruloplasmin. The excess copper may be deposited in the liver, causing
jaundice and cirrhosis, or in the brain, causing mental retardation.
A progressive disease of the eye due to deficiency of vitamin A. The corneal
and conjunctiva become dry and thickened. Xerophthalmia may lead to blindness.