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Nutritional Assessment and Profiling: Biochemical

Terms

Introduction

Iron

Alkaline phosphatase  -  An enzyme capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid esters, alkaline phosphatase is found in the teeth, bone, plasma, kidney, and intestine.
Aplastic anemia  -  A form of anemia that exhibits a deficiency in all elements of the blood, aplastic anemia can be caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, radiation, or medications.
Conjunctiva  -  The delicate mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids
Deciliter  -  A tenth of a liter. The symbol for deciliter is dL.
Glutathione peroxidase  -  An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of reducing agents from reduced glutathione to hydrogen peroxide, which protects cells and membranes against oxidative damage
Gram  -  A unit equal to one thousandth of a kilogram. The symbol for gram is g or gm.
Heme  -  The iron-containing part of hemoglobin where it is found in red blood cells bound to a protein globulin.
Hemochromatosis  -  A hereditary disorder in which there is an excessive absorption and storage of iron. This can lead to damage of organs such as the liver, pancreas, and endocrine glands.
Hemoglobin  -  A substance in red blood cells that is responsible for its color. It is composed of a pigment called heme bound to the protein globulin. Hemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood.
Hemolysis  -  The destruction of red blood cells (erythrocytes). This usually leads to anemia.
Hydroxylation  -  The process of addition of the hydroxyl (OH) radical
Hyperproteinemia  -  A condition of excessive protein in the blood
Hypoproteinemia  -  A condition of abnormally low protein in the blood
Leukocyte  -  A blood cell that contains a nucleus, also known as white blood cell. The three major types of leukocytes are granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Leukocytes are involved in the immune system, protecting the body against foreign substances.
Linoleic acid  -  One of the unsaturated fatty acids that are essential for growth but cannot be synthesized by the body. Linoleic acid is mainly found in corn and soybean oil.
Linolenic acid  -  An essential fatty acid
Liter  -  A unit of volume equal to the volume occupied by one kilogram of water at 4 degrees Celsius and 760 millimeters of mercury pressure. It is also used to describe a cubic decimeter.
Megaloblastic anemia  -  A form of anemia that is characterized by abnormally large red blood cells. It is usually caused by folic acid and/or vitamin B12 deficiency.
Microcytic anemia  -  A form of anemia that is characterized by abnormally small red blood cells and low circulating levels of hemoglobin
Micrograms  -  A millionth of a gram. The symbol is mcg.
Micromoles  -  A unit of measure that is one millionth of a mole. A mole is an amount of a substance with a weight in grams equal to the molecular weight of the substance.
Milligrams  -  A thousandth of a gram. The symbol is mg.
Nanograms  -  A billionth of a gram. The symbol is ng.
Nephrosis  -  A degeneration of the outer tissue of the kidney tubules.
Picogram  -  A trillionth of a gram. The symbol is pg.
Protoporphyrins  -  A pigment that is a con constituent of hemoglobin, myohemoglobin, cytochromes, and chlorophyll.
Reticuloendothelial  -  This adjective refers to cells known as phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. These defend against microbial infection and with the removal of worn-out blood cells.
Retinol  -  A lipid alcohol that functions in the retinal of the eye. Vitamin A is a generic term for a group of compounds that have the biological activity of retinol. Sometimes the terms are used synonymously but retinol is actually the 'preformed vitamin A' found in animal products.
Transferrin  -  A protein that binds iron and transports it in blood
Uremia  -  The presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds in the blood. This can occur in kidney failure when the kidney cannot excrete the waste products in the urine.
Wilson's disease  -  An inborn error in copper metabolism in which there is a deficiency of ceruloplasmin. The excess copper may be deposited in the liver, causing jaundice and cirrhosis, or in the brain, causing mental retardation.
Xerophthalmia  -  A progressive disease of the eye due to deficiency of vitamin A. The corneal and conjunctiva become dry and thickened. Xerophthalmia may lead to blindness.

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