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The Civil Rights Era (1865–1970)

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1. Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois disagreed on the issue of racial equality in that

2. Whose writings and practices inspired Martin Luther King Jr. and other nonviolent civil rights protesters?

3. Kennedy demonstrated his support for the civil rights movement most clearly when he

4. All of the following civil rights organizations employed nonviolent methods of protest except

5. Which earlier decision did the Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, decision reverse?

6. The Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, that

7. During what event did Martin Luther King Jr. first become a nationally prominent figure?

8. “Revolution is bloody, revolution is hostile, revolution knows no compromise, revolution overturns and destroys everything that gets in its way. And you, sitting around here like a fly on the wall, saying, ‘I’m going to love these folks no matter how much they hate me.’” The “you” in this speech probably refers to

9. “In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” These words were most likely spoken by

10. “Whoever heard of a revolution where [protesters] lock arms . . . singing, ‘We Shall Overcome’? You don’t do that in a revolution. You don’t do any singing—you’re too busy swinging.” This speech was probably made by

11. Violence against peaceful civil rights protesters in Selma, Alabama, prompted the

12. Which president supported the civil rights movement the least?

13. What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do?

14. Malcolm X was initially affiliated with the

15. What did Executive Order 9981 do?

16. Lyndon B. Johnson threw his support behind the civil rights movement so he could

17. During what event did Martin Luther King Jr. deliver his famous “I have a dream” speech?

18. Blacks in Montgomery, Alabama, boycotted public transportation for a year after

19. Who was the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court?

20. In the early twentieth century, civil rights activist Marcus Garvey pushed for

21. Jackie Robinson made headlines in 1947 when he

22. All of the following statements accurately characterize the civil rights movement between 1940 and 1970 except

23. Which methods did the NAACP primarily employ in order to achieve civil rights goals?

24. The Civil Rights Act of 1957

25. Eisenhower sent federal troops to desegregate public high schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 mainly because

26. Which organization did Martin Luther King Jr. found?

27. What was President Eisenhower’s response to the Brown v. Board of Education decision?

28. The Twenty-Fourth Amendment

29. What happened during the Freedom Summer campaign of 1964?

30. In which city did the most infamous and destructive race riots of the mid- to late 1960s occur?

31. The SNCC was launched to organize more protests like

32. Although blacks had been struggling for equality for more than a century, the push for equality picked up momentum in the mid-twentieth century for all of the following reasons except

33. Who assassinated Malcolm X?

34. What did Stokely Carmichael advocate?

35. The SNCC differed from the SCLC in that

36. All of the following were true of the Black Panthers except

37. Elijah Muhammad and the Nation of Islam preached a philosophy most similar to that of

38. What was the main reason Lyndon B. Johnson promoted civil rights?

39. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 do?

40. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 differed from all previous pieces of civil rights legislation and Supreme Court decisions in that it

41. Most modern historians regard the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century as a continuation of the longer struggle for racial equality that began during

42. What was the de facto motto of civil rights activists in the 1950s and 1960s?

43. Which best describes President Kennedy’s attitude toward the civil rights movement?

44. Why did Malcolm Little change his surname to “X”?

45. James Meredith was the first African-American

46. What did Rosa Parks protest in 1955?

47. The “black power” movement was begun by disgruntled members of the

48. CORE was similar to the SCLC in that both organizations

49. What was the Southern Manifesto?

50. Martin Luther King Jr. was

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