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The French and Indian War (1754-1763)

Important People and Places

Context

Timeline

British and colonials

Earl of Loundoun  -  Appointed commander-in-chief of the British forces in 1756, Loundoun presided over, and caused, many devastating failures for the British.
Major General Edward Braddock  -  The first general to arrive from Britain. He was killed in 1755 at the first battle for Fort Duquesne.
Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie  -  The colonial leader of Virginia in 1754, Dinwiddie was concerned about French encroachment on the Virginia border. In late 1753, he sends a 21-year-old major in the Virginia military named George Washington to tell the French to back away from the border.
William Johnson  -  Johnson began his career as the Indian agent for the colony of New York. During this period he was one of the most successful negotiators with many Indian nations, especially the Iroquois. During the war he became a war hero as well, leading the British to victory at the Battle of Lake George in 1755.
Lieutenant Colonel George Munro  -  In history, Munro met defeat as the leader of Fort William Henry in 1757. In literary history, he is a central figure in James Fenimore Cooper's classic The Last of the Mohicans.
William Pitt  -  Pitt assumed leadership of the British ministry in December 1756. His aggressive new policies for the war were a crucial part of turning the tide in Britain's favor in the latter half of the war.
Captain Robert Rogers  -  Leader of the Rangers, a rough-and-tumble force of men from New Hampshire. Operated as spies and participated in guerrilla warfare against the French to great success throughout the war.
George Washington  -  Washington began his career as a brash and careless diplomat and military leader. After being asked to resign after the Fort Necessity fiasco, he returns as a volunteer under British authority. The French and Indian War is where Washington learned how to be a leader.
James Wolfe  -  Major British general who led the British to victory in the Battle of Quebec.

French and Colonials

Louis-Joseph de Montcalm  -  Beginning in 1756, Montcalm took over as commander-in-chief of the French forces in North America. He was a much-feared and respected general who lost his life at the Battle of Quebec.
Marquis de Vaudreuil  -  In 1755, he became the governor of Canada, replacing the Marquis Duquesne.

Forts and Places

Fort George/Fort Duquesne/Fort Pitt  -  This centrally located fort in what is now Pittsburgh, PA changed hands many times during the war. It was the site of England's first disastrous battle, in which Braddock lost his life.
Fort Necessity  -  This hastily constructed fort in Great Meadows, PA was the site of George Washington's first defeat in 1754. Later in American history, it oddly came to symbolize the rugged spirit of the colonials.
Fort William Henry  -  Site of the most notorious massacre in colonial history, this fort located near the Hudson River fell to the French in 1757.
Louisbourg  -  An important city on the east coast of Canada (in present-day Nova Scotia). It was a French stronghold of arms and supplies.
Ticonderoga  -  A major French fort and city north of Albany. The British failed repeatedly to seize it; they finally succeeded in 1759.

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