Term used to refer to the "middle class." In the 19th century concept of class
struggle, the bourgeoisie were those who owned the means of production and the
proletariat consisted of their workers.
A confederation of the various fragmented German states in the period after the
Congress of Vienna (1815).
Student political groups that formed at German Universities beginning around
1815. These groups were expressions of German nationalism.
Generally middle-class economic ideology emphasizing free markets, the ownership
of private property, and the accumulation of wealth by enterprising
Liberal, Nationalist secret society in Italy in the first half of the
19th century. They sought a unified Italy under governments different from those
the Congress of Vienna had imposed on them.
Cato Street Conspiracy
Conspiracy of British Radicalism, plotting to assassinate the Tory
cabinet. When the conspiracy was discovered in 1820, several conspirators were
Reform movement in Britain of the 1830s and 1840s that demanded progressive
political reforms like universal adult male suffrage and the right of working-
class people to serve in Parliament. Although it failed at the time, the goals
of Chartism were eventually reached.
Term referring to the Reactionary method for maintaining political control;
Metternich called a series of congresses between conservative leaders during
the years from 1815 and 1848. These congresses included the Congress of
Vienna, the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, the Congress of Troppau, and
the Congress of Verona.
British reactionary philosophy supporting monarchy and old ways. Championed
by Edmund Burke, who had been horrified by the French
Revolution, Conservatism argued for prudent and
First passed in 1815, these laws put high tariffs on grain coming into
England. This protected the profits of the land-owning aristocrats, but also
increased food prices, hurting both workers and their employers, who had to pay
higher wages if the price of bread went up. It is important to realize that in
the British usage here, "Corn" refers to grains in general, not the kind of Corn
(Maize) of which Americans usually think.
Theory of thought and historical progress in which opposites are created, and
then reconciled to create a synthesis. This approach was pioneered by Hegel.
In 1815, Alexander I started the Holy Alliance to uphold Christian values.
However, it became a common name by which the reactionary Congress System was
referred to as a whole.
Laissez Faire -
In French, it means "allow to do". This economic philosophy suggests that if
government interferes in the economy as little as possible (takes a "hands off"
approach) markets will equilibrate and the economy will run as smoothly as
19th century ideology that sought self-government, increased male suffrage, and
legal equality for all and free-market economic policies. 19th century
"liberalism" is a far cry from what "liberalism" means today. Because 19th
century "liberalism" ultimately triumphed in Western Europe and the United
States, 19th century "liberalism" is actually closer to what is "conservative"
in our own time.
Industrial city in Northern England, which greatly increased in population
during the Industrial Revolution. Because of the Rotten Boroughs, its
interests were underrepresented in Parliament during the early 19th century.
American policy announced in 1823 in which President Monroe demanded that
not interfere with goings-on in the Western Hemisphere. Monroe's warning was
initially followed not because of fear of the United States, but because the
other European powers knew Britain's Navy would stop any further colonial
adventurism in the New World.
Modern movement in which countries engineer a sense of unity and common purpose
among a large nation. The people in these nationalist countries develop a strong
sense of loyalty to their nation. Though it seems automatoc to most people in
the modern world, nationalism really developed throughout Europe only in the
early 19th century.
Movement that seeks to unify the Slavs, an ethnic classification in Eastern
Europe that includes Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks,
Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and Macedonians.
In the 19th century, a term developed to refer to the working class.
Proletariats were employed by, and involved in class struggle with, the
Anti-Church, anti-Monarchy reform group in 19th century England, largely based
on the ideas of Jeremy Bentham. Unconcerned by tradition, the British
radicals challenged the old ways.
Having to do with what is opposed to change and progress. In 19th century
Europe, the Reactionary cause was championed by Metternich, who wanted the
old regimes of Europe to stay in power.
French equivalent of British Radicalism, Republicanism glorified the social
leveling accomplished by the French Revolution.
Intellectual movement begun in reaction to the dominance of
Enlightenment Reason. Romanticism criticized
Reason, suggesting that it could not answer all questions. Leading Romantic
artists and writers included Hegel, Schiller, Schinckel,
Keats, Wordsworth, Percy Shelley,
Mary Shelley, and Delacroix.
In England in the 19th century, voting districts were so poorly drawn that a
city with half-a-million people like Manchester received only as much
representation in Parliament as a small village. Though the Industrial
Revolution rapidly changed the population distribution in England, the voting
districts lagged behind, giving advantage in Parliament to wealthy landowners
while under representing the new manufacturing cities.
Economic ideology, opposed to Capitalism and Laissez Faire, that holds
that key industry and the means of production should be centrally controlled by
the government, so that workers will not be abused by bourgeoisie factory
Threads, cloth and clothing. Early in the Industrial Revolution, textiles
were the mainstay of British factory production.
18th and early 19th century British political party, opposed to the Whigs.
Although the Tories comprised various factions, the party was opposed to
Utility is the measure of good or usefulness of something. It is often held that
something should be done if it will maximize the overall utility of society.
This belief is formulated as "Utilitarianism," and is described in John Stuart
Mill's book Utilitarianism.
German Romantic idea, suggested by Herder, that
each nation has its own particular "special genius". Thus, what is right for one
nation may not be right for another nation, and, according to German Romantics
and Nationalists, each "nation" should strive to express its individual
Russian Czar from 1801 to 1825. He briefly allied with
Napoleon before turning
against him. Though Alexander
envisioned himself as an "enlightened despot", Metternich managed to move
him towards becoming a Reactionary after the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
English philosopher, a father of Radicalism and Utilitarianism. One
example of his unconventional nature: when he died in 1832, he had his body
preserved and placed on display in a cabinet in University College, London,
where it remains to this day.
South American freedom fighter who led the liberation of several Spanish
colonies around 1820. He subsequently became a South American dictator, with
hopes of uniting a South American empire.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
After the February Revolution in Paris in 1848, Louis Napoleon was elected
President in France simply on the basis of name recognition among the newly
enfranchised voters. He soon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III. France
prospered under him for two decades.
European royal family, which had kings on the thrones of France, Spain, and
Naples at various times during the early 19th century.
18th century thinker, statesman, and writer, whose 1790 work, Reflections on
the Revolution in France, became the classic text of British
British foreign secretary and champion of Liberalism in foreign affairs form
1822 to 1827. Canning briefly served as Prime Minister in 1827.
British foreign secretary from 1812-1822. Castlereagh was a major architect of
the new European balance of power established at the Congress of Vienna in
Successor to Louis XVIII, Bourbon king of France from 1824 to his
overthrow in the July Revolution of 1830. He believed in the divine-right of
kings, and was unable to cope with the new, post-revolutionary realities of
French Romantic painter, who painted exotic scenes, and whose use of color
over line inspired the Impressionists.
Austrian Hapsburg Emperor who abdicated during the revolution of 1848,
turning the throne over to Franz Joseph.
French theorist of Socialism who wanted to reorganize society into
Hapsburg Emperor of Austria from 1848 to 1916. In 1867 he divided the Empire
into Austria and Hungary, creating the "Dual Monarchy".
18th and 19th century German writer, who worked in nearly every imaginable
field, from science to drama. Considered one of the greatest German writers,
Goethe was essential in the Nationalist construction of a German
Perhaps the greatest royal family of modern European history, the Hapsburg
dynasty once controlled Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman
Empire under one man. By the 19th century, they only really controlled the
Austrian Empire. Emperors Ferdinand and Franz Joseph were both
G.W.F. Hegel was a 19th century Romantic German philosopher who held that
progress is made through conflicting opposites being resolved, via the
dialectic, in a synthesis. See Introductory Lectures on
Magyar (Hungarian) Nationalist who briefly controlled Hungary in 1848
and 1849, but was crushed by the Russian army.
Also called the Duke of Orleans, Louis Philippe ruled France as King from 1830
to 1848, when his government toppled in the February Revolution. Louis
Philippe drew most of his support from the Bourgeoisie; he alienated and
marginalized the growing French working class, leading to his overthrow in 1848.
Bourbon king of France from 1815 to his death in 1824, during which time he
proved moderately Liberal, allowing an advisory Parliament to meet.
Dominant linguistic and ethnic group in Hungary.
Early British economist. His most famous idea was that increasing the food
supply would always increase the population, meaning that eradicating the
suffering of the lower classes was impossible.
German economist and philosopher who, along with Friedrich Engels, wrote
The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
while in living in England. The ideology of Communism draws its inspiration from
Marx and Engels' work, which was influenced by the social environment in Western
Europe during the first half of the 19th century.
Italian Nationalist from Genoa who founded Young Italy in 1832, a movement
that would inspire nationalist groups throughout Europe.
Austrian foreign minister, Metternich was Europe's arch-Reactionary. He was
a leading architect of the balance of power developed at the Congress of
Vienna in 1815, and he called the great powers to various Congresses
throughout the coming decade to put down European rebellions wherever they
started. In 1848, during a revolution in Vienna, Metternich fled the city.
Succeeded Alexander I, serving as Russian Czar from 1825 to 1855. Nicholas'
more liberal brother Constantine was favored as successor by Russian
revolutionaries, but Nicholas used the army to destroy this rebellion.
Manchester manufacturer who grew upset by the conditions endured by workers
in Industrial Revolution Britain, and became a reformer.
Britain's conservative prime minister from 1834 to 1835, and from 1841 to 1846.
Peel oversaw the repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846, partially due to the
ongoing Irish Famine.
Early British economist who helped develop "Classical" economics. He was
responsible for formulating the "Iron Law" of wages, which stated that any
attempt to improve workers' lots would lead to such a population increase that
the increased competition for labor would ultimately bring workers' wages back
down. This argument held that no improvement in workers' lives was possible,
so the government should not bother legislating wage increases.
French theorist of Socialism, he developed a concept of "Christian
Socialism" emphasizing the brotherhood of all men. His conception included the
centralization of industry and equal sharing of its profits.
Jose de San Martin
Much like Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin was a South American military
leader involved in the liberation of several South American countries from
Spanish colonial rule.
German Romantic dramatist of the late 18th and early 19th century.
Karl Friedrich Schinkel
German Romantic architect who worked both in classical forms; a leader in
the Gothic Revival.
British Romantic writer, wife of Percy Bysshe Shelley, and author of
Frankenstein (1818), a classic allegory of the
flaws of Reason and Science.
An ethnic and linguistic classification in Eastern Europe and Western Asia that
includes Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs,
Croats, Slovenes, and Macedonians.
1819 regulation in Germany that outlawed the Burschenschaft student groups,
pushing them underground. It also established censorship, and government control
of universities. Metternich, from his position of influence in Austria,
helped get this measure passed in the German Bund.
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle
1818 Congress in which the European powers agreed to withdraw their armies
occupying France. Alexander I tried to convince the other powers to form an
international military coalition to suppress Revolution, but Castlereagh
refused British participation.
Congress of Troppau
1820 Congress, dealing with collapse of the government in Naples. At the
Congress, Metternich received permission to restore the old government using
the Austrian army.
Congress of Verona
Congress called by Metternich to deal with revolutionary stirrings in Spain
and Greece. France sent an army into Spain to quell the rebellion there.
Although Alexander I expressed an interest in putting down the South
American revolutions of Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin,
Castlereagh promised British naval opposition. Verona was the last
international Congress held in the period from 1815-1848.
Congress of Vienna
1814-1815 meeting of the Great powers that led to the reorganization of Europe
in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars.
The 1825 death of Czar Alexander I of Russian sparked a succession dispute
between Alexander's two sons. Constantine, the younger brother of Nicholas,
received some support because he was known to be the more Liberal of the two
brothers. The revolt in favor of Constantine was put down by the rightful heir,
Nicholas I, and the army.
18th century movement among wealthy British landed aristocrats to rationalize
their farms. Using new farming technology and systems of crop rotation, they
forced the agrarian poor off the old "village commons" that now became
"enclosed" as private property. The jobless poor ended up constituting the
proletariat working class in the upcoming Industrial Revolution.
1848 Revolution in Paris, primarily by lower-class workers, who overthrew
Louis Philippe, established universal adult male suffrage, and elected
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte president. Along with overthrowing Louis Philippe's
regime, the February Revolution sparked other revolutions throughout Europe.
From 1848 to 1849, a group of German bourgeoisie intellectuals and
professionals who attempted (and failed) to create a unified German state.
1830s movement in architecture when buildings in the Gothic (high medieval)
style became popular. It was in this period that the British Parliament building
was built. This was the architectural manifestation of Romanticism. Where
the Enlightenment had looked down on the Middle Ages as a "dark" period of
ignorance, the Romantics celebrated the Medieval period for its spiritualism,
depth, and sense of adventure.
18th and 19th century development, beginning in Britain, in which manufacturing
was increasingly done in factories by machines, rather than in small workshops
by hand labor. The Industrial Revolution, in combination with the earlier the
Enclosure Movement, radically reshaped the world economy and social and
1830 overthrow of Charles X's oppressive regime; ultimately,
Louis Philippe became the new French king.
In 1819, manufacturers organized around 80,000 workers to protest the Corn
Laws. When some of the peaceful protesters were shot, the event was dubbed the
"Peterloo Massacre", likening the British government's shameful use of violence
on a peaceful crowd to the recent defeat of Napoleon at
Reform Bill of 1832
This British bill simplified voting requirements, though it actually didn't
enfranchise many new people. Most importantly, it partially corrected the
problem of Rotten Boroughs, giving a much larger amount of Parliamentary
power to previously under-represented manufacturers like those Manchester.