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Further Reading

Bloch, Marc Leopold Benjamin. Feudal Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Collins, Roger. Early Medieval Europe, 300-1000. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

Collins, Roger. Charlemagne. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998.

Currier, John W. Clovis, King of the Franks. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University Press, 1997.

Davis, R. H. C. A History of Medieval Europe: from Constantine to Saint Louis. London; New York: Longman, 1988.

Fletcher, R. A. Moorish Spain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993.

Havighurst, Alfred F., ed. The Pirenne Thesis: Analysis, Criticism, and Revision. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976.

Jones, Gwyn. A History of the Vikings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.

Kaegi, Walter Emil. Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Kennedy, Hugh. The Early Abbasid Caliphate: a Political History. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Kennedy, Hugh. Muslim Spain and Portugal: a Political History of Al- Andalus. New York: Longman, 1996.

Kennedy, Hugh The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: the Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century. New York : Longman, 1986.

McEvedy, Colin. The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History. New York: Penguin Books, 1992.

Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Apogee. New York: Knopf, 1992.

Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: the Decline and Fall. London: Viking, 1995.

Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: the Early Centuries. New York: Knopf, 1989.

Tierney, Brian. Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 300-1475. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill College, 1999.

Treadgold, Warren T. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1997.

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