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408-450: Rule of Theodosius II in the East ·Disappaerance of Rome in the West, growing Hun penetration south of Danube.
451: Council of Chalcedon, Marcian's rule ·Church council declaring Monophysitism to be heresy, Marcian's rejection of Hun tribute demands.
474-491: Zeno's rule ·Ostrogoths raid Byzantium, then sent west by Zeno; internal palace intrigues and civil unrest.
476 ·Odovacar deposes last Roman Emperor, rules in his place
488 ·Theodoric the Ostrogoth arrives in Italy, eliminates Odovacar
491: Anastasia Emperor in East ·Schism with Rome develops due to his Monophysitism; beginning of Bulgar raids and Blues and Greens unrest.
506: Clovis' conversion ·Franks become Catholic, defeat Arain Visigoths at Battle of Vouille
511 ·Clovis' death
527-565 ·Justinian's rule
532: Nika riots ·After capital city insurrection, Emperor Justinian sends forces to conquer North Africa (533) and Italy (535-52) as well as southern tip of Spain (550).
542 ·Plague affecting all urban areas of Mediterranean basin
568-575 ·Lombard conquest of Italy
590-604: Pontificate of Gregory the Great ·Consolidation of Papal Estates, provision of government to Rome, truces with Lombards, defenses against Lombards
629-638: ·Catholic missions in England, Dagobert I in Francia; Heraclius' victory over Sassanians and loss of Middle East to Muslims; Sassanian loss to Muslims at Qadisiyya
642 ·Collpase of Sassanian state and its Islamic conquest
656-661: Caliphate of Ali ·Civil conflict in Islamic state between Ali and Ummayads founder Muawiya.
663: Whitby Synod ·Roman rite as rite for English churches; decision that it is legitimate to proselytize on the continent for Catholic church.
674-677 ·First Muslim siege of Constantinople
687: Battle of Tertry ·Pepin II's victory over Neustrian mayor; establishment of his family's dominance in Francia.
711 ·Islamic invasion of Iberia
715-720: Second Muslim siege of Constantinople; · Charles Martel's control over Austrasia and Neustria
732: Battle of Tours ·Charles Martel defeats Spanish Muslim forces at Poitiers in southern France
741-751 ·Joint Pepin-Carloman rule; Aistulf Lombard king in Italy; transfer of power from Ummayads to Abbasids
756: Ummayad Emirate in Spain ·Last living Ummayad family member, Abd al-Rahman, escapes to Spain, founds state in Cordoba.
768-814: Charlemagne's rule ·Conquest of Saxons, setting up of border marches, conquest of Lombard Italy, imperial coronation, first Viking raids on Britain.
814-840: Louis the Pious ·Internal conflict in Carolingian state, beginnings of Arab seaborne raids in Mediterranean and conquest of Sicily, increased Viking raids.
830s-950s: ·Viking, Magyar, and Muslim raids
845 ·Vikings begin wintering at mouth of Loire, Seine
878-886 · Viking siege of Paris
911: Charles the Simple's agreement with Rollo; East Frankish Carolingians extinct ·Charles allows Rollo to legally possess lands at mouth of Seine, Normans evolve; Conrad of Franconia chosen to replace Frankish kings.
Alfred the Great (r. 871-899) of Wessex ·Restricts Vikings to Danelaw, strengthens Wessex Defenses.
912-961 ·Rule of Abd al-Rahman III in Spain
919-936 ·Henry the Fowler in Germany, re-annexes Lorriane
Aethelstan (r. 925-939) ·Conquers the Danelaw.
Otto I (r. 936-973) ·Defeats rebellious counts, defeats Magyars (95), establishes Saxon control in Italy.
955 ·Battle of the Lech
960: Hugh Capet as Duke of Franks ·Chosen by French counts because they wanted a weak ruler.

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