Czar and Emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825. For a time he allied with
Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit, but ultimately he was a member of the
alliance that defeated Napoleon.
Prussian field marshal who helped the British army, led by Wellington,
defeat Napoleon's forces at Waterloo.
A major European royal family that included the kings of France before the
Revolution, as well as the royal family of Spain and other countries (like
Naples) in Europe. After Napoleon was deposed, Louis XVIII (A Bourbon)
was installed on the throne.
British delegate to the Congress of Vienna.
A leading French artist of the Napoleonic Period, David painted in the
Neoclassical style. He painted many pictures that glorified the French
, and later, Napoleon.
Early German Romantic philosopher and nationalist.
French police chief under Napoleon.
The last Holy Roman Emperor, losing this title when Napoleon dissolved the
fairly decrepit Holy Roman Empire and formed the Confederation of the Rhine.
In 1806, Francis II proclaimed himself Emperor of Austria. A Hapsburg, Francis
died in 1835.
Frederick William III
The Prussian king from 1797 to 1840. He was a fairly weak king, manipulated
alternately by Alexander I and Metternich's influences. Under him,
advisors like Baron Stein and Hardenberg initiated important modernizing
advances in the Prussian state.
Francisco de Goya
Great Spanish artist whose works largely reflect the historical environment of
his time, portraying the horror caused by Napoleon's invasion of Spain.
Successor to Baron Stein, Hardenberg was a Prussian administrator who fought
for liberalizing, modernizing reforms to Prussian society. He also represented
Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. He wanted a constitutional monarchy, but
was unable to get Frederick William III to agree to have his power limited
in that way.
Early influence on German Romanticism. Herder developed a concept of
history that allowed the Romantics to challenge the Enlightenment ideals of
A Creole (born in the New World), Josephine was married to a French officer
before. After the officer died, she met Napoleon and they married
in 1796. As Empress of France, she amassed an incredible fortune in jewels. In
1810, after the failed to bear an heir, Napoleon had their marriage annulled on
the grounds that no parish priest had been present their wedding. Josephine died
Bourbon king of France who held the throne after the fall of Napoleon in
1814 to 1824, with a brief interruption when he fled the country during the
Hundred Days of 1815.
Clemens von Metternich
Austrian statesman and diplomat who represented Austria at the Congress of
Vienna. Metternich, Austria's foreign minister from 1809 to 1848, was an
arch-conservative and worked hard to create stability in Europe and preserve the
power of the old regime,
Austrian archduchess, who Napoleon married after annulling his marriage with
Josephine. Marie Louise was 18 at the time, and in 1811, she gave birth to a
son, referred to as the "King of Rome".
Cavalry general who was one of Napoleon's best marshals. Murat led the
invasion of Spain, and later became the King of Naples from 1808 to 1815.
Brilliant French artillery commander, general, first consul, and finally
emperor. Napoleon, born on the isle of Corsica, worked his way up through the
ranks of military officers and seized control of the French government. He then
built a massive empire that encompassed the majority of Europe. He married
Josephine and later divorced her to marry Marie Louise. After a
disastrous Russian campaign, Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Leipzig
and exiled to Elba in 1814. In 1815, he tried to return to power in the period
known as the Hundred Days. After being defeated at Waterloo, Napoleon
was exiled to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. His rule, both in the passions
and political and social measures it introduced, and in the ideological and
nationalist enmity it inspired, transformed Europe. Please see the SparkNotes
Biography on Napoleon
Admiral Horatio Nelson
Brilliant British naval commander who won crucial victories against the French.
These included the Battle of Aboukir (The Battle of the Nile) in 1798 and
Trafalgar in 1805. Although he won the battle, Nelson was killed at
Trafalgar. Privately, Nelson (a married man) was involved in an affair with a
married woman, creating some of the leading gossip in England during the
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
During the French Revolution
, a Liberal member of
the clergy, supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery pamphlet
What Is the Third Estate
. Sieyes led the
coup that overthrew the Directory and established the
Consulate, of which, he was one of the three consuls. Sieyes took on
Napoleon as one of the First Consul to be his "Saber."
Prussian minister from 1807 to 1808, when Napoleon forced him to leave
Prussia. From then on (1812-1815), he was an advisor in Czar Alexander I's
court. Made several modernizing changes in Prussia, primarily increasing the
legal freedoms of the lower classes.
French foreign minister under Napoleon, Talleyrand played politics so well
that he managed to stay in office under the two following regimes. Talleyrand
represented France at the Congress of Vienna.
Haitian revolutionary, who led a slave revolt in Haiti during the French
Revolution. Toussaint's government was initially sanctioned by the French, but
as Toussaint proved too uncontrollable and independently minded, Napoleon
ordered an invasion of the island in 1802 and captured Toussaint.
Duke of Wellington
British commander who, along with Blucher, took primary credit for defeating
Napoleon at Waterloo. Earlier, Wellington had also led the British forces
supporting the Spanish guerillas in the Peninsular War. Wellington later
entered British politics and served as Prime Minister.