Country in Northern Italy, under French control, formed by the Treaty of Campo
Formio in 1797. In 1801, it was reorganized into the Italian Republic.
Confederation of the Rhine
Lasting from 1806 to 1813, the Confederation of the Rhine replaced the old Holy
Roman Empire and was Napoleon-controlled Germany.
French government from 1799 to 1804, set up by Napoleon and Sieyes after
their overthrow of the Directory. Napoleon
was First Consul. Set up as an oligarchy, Napoleon ended up becoming the sole
dictator of the regime. In 1804, he replaced the consulate with the Empire.
Napoleon's plan to stop all shipping of British goods into Europe.
Announced by the Berlin Decree of 1806, the Continental System resulted in a
British blockade of all European shipping, and ended up hurting France more than
Britain. By trying to spread the Continental System into Spain, Napoleon and
France had to endure the constant harassment of the disastrous Peninsular
Grouping of European states against Revolutionary
that lasted from 1792 to 1797. Ended after
Napoleon defeated Austria in his Italian campaign, which rocketed him to
popularity in France.
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
Name Napoleon gave to the Polish state he created in 1807, and which lasted
until 1815. Though technically independent, it was in reality under Napoleon's
control. Czar Alexander I of Russia was seriously upset by the recreation of
the Polish state, since he wanted the territory badly.
1815 agreement promoted by Czar Alexander I, by which most European powers
promised to uphold Christian virtues like peace and charity. Only Britain,
Turkey, and the Pope refused to join the Holy Alliance. However, few took the
agreement very seriously.
Extreme revolutionaries, who held a very liberal equalitarian vision. The
Jacobins also had a reputation for violence, since they had controlled and
initiated the Terror
during the French
Revolution. The term Jacobin evoked both contempt and fear in post-
Napoleon's system of laws, particularly the civil code, which he first
announced in 1804. The code remains a basis of European continental law to this
day. It differs from Anglo-American "Common Law" tradition practiced in most of
the US in several ways; for instance, it is less concerned with protecting
alleged criminals' legal rights.
A modern phenomena in which people feel that a person's main loyalty should be
to their state (tied up in patriotism). It is actually a fairly new idea, which
first appeared at the end of the 18th century in the
. During the Napoleonic era,
domination by France gave rise to a nationalist movement in Germany.
A late 18th and early 19th century style in painting and artwork that emphasized
an idealized version of classical (Greek and Roman) art. An example is the work
of the French painter David.
A general 19th-century intellectual rebellion against the Rationalism espoused
by the French Enlightenment. This movement was particularly vibrant in Germany,
which chafed under French rule and desired to rebel against French systems and
1798 to 1802 anti-French coalition. Austria, Russia, and Britain were in the
Coalition, but Prussia did not join. After the Treaty of Luneville and the
Peace of Amiens, the Second Coalition ended, and a one-year period of
Europe-wide peace prevailed.
1805 Coalition of the anti-Napoleonic powers. When Alexander I signed the
Treaty of Tilsit and sided with Napoleon, this coalition came to a halt.
German term essentially meaning the "spirit of a nation." Romantic thinkers
like Herder and Fichte believed that all nations had their own unique
volksgeist, which meant that the same laws and governments were did not
apply to everyone in the same way. This was a reaction against the
universalistic notions of the French Enlightenment.
Czar and Emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825. For a time he allied with
Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit, but ultimately he was a member of the
alliance that defeated Napoleon.
Prussian field marshal who helped the British army, led by Wellington,
defeat Napoleon's forces at Waterloo.
A major European royal family that included the kings of France before the
Revolution, as well as the royal family of Spain and other countries (like
Naples) in Europe. After Napoleon was deposed, Louis XVIII (A Bourbon)
was installed on the throne.
British delegate to the Congress of Vienna.
A leading French artist of the Napoleonic Period, David painted in the
Neoclassical style. He painted many pictures that glorified the French
, and later, Napoleon.
Early German Romantic philosopher and nationalist.
French police chief under Napoleon.
The last Holy Roman Emperor, losing this title when Napoleon dissolved the
fairly decrepit Holy Roman Empire and formed the Confederation of the Rhine.
In 1806, Francis II proclaimed himself Emperor of Austria. A Hapsburg, Francis
died in 1835.
Frederick William III
The Prussian king from 1797 to 1840. He was a fairly weak king, manipulated
alternately by Alexander I and Metternich's influences. Under him,
advisors like Baron Stein and Hardenberg initiated important modernizing
advances in the Prussian state.
Francisco de Goya
Great Spanish artist whose works largely reflect the historical environment of
his time, portraying the horror caused by Napoleon's invasion of Spain.
Successor to Baron Stein, Hardenberg was a Prussian administrator who fought
for liberalizing, modernizing reforms to Prussian society. He also represented
Prussia at the Congress of Vienna. He wanted a constitutional monarchy, but
was unable to get Frederick William III to agree to have his power limited
in that way.
Early influence on German Romanticism. Herder developed a concept of
history that allowed the Romantics to challenge the Enlightenment ideals of
A Creole (born in the New World), Josephine was married to a French officer
before. After the officer died, she met Napoleon and they married
in 1796. As Empress of France, she amassed an incredible fortune in jewels. In
1810, after the failed to bear an heir, Napoleon had their marriage annulled on
the grounds that no parish priest had been present their wedding. Josephine died
Bourbon king of France who held the throne after the fall of Napoleon in
1814 to 1824, with a brief interruption when he fled the country during the
Hundred Days of 1815.
Clemens von Metternich
Austrian statesman and diplomat who represented Austria at the Congress of
Vienna. Metternich, Austria's foreign minister from 1809 to 1848, was an
arch-conservative and worked hard to create stability in Europe and preserve the
power of the old regime,
Austrian archduchess, who Napoleon married after annulling his marriage with
Josephine. Marie Louise was 18 at the time, and in 1811, she gave birth to a
son, referred to as the "King of Rome".
Cavalry general who was one of Napoleon's best marshals. Murat led the
invasion of Spain, and later became the King of Naples from 1808 to 1815.
Brilliant French artillery commander, general, first consul, and finally
emperor. Napoleon, born on the isle of Corsica, worked his way up through the
ranks of military officers and seized control of the French government. He then
built a massive empire that encompassed the majority of Europe. He married
Josephine and later divorced her to marry Marie Louise. After a
disastrous Russian campaign, Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Leipzig
and exiled to Elba in 1814. In 1815, he tried to return to power in the period
known as the Hundred Days. After being defeated at Waterloo, Napoleon
was exiled to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic. His rule, both in the passions
and political and social measures it introduced, and in the ideological and
nationalist enmity it inspired, transformed Europe. Please see the SparkNotes
Biography on Napoleon
Admiral Horatio Nelson
Brilliant British naval commander who won crucial victories against the French.
These included the Battle of Aboukir (The Battle of the Nile) in 1798 and
Trafalgar in 1805. Although he won the battle, Nelson was killed at
Trafalgar. Privately, Nelson (a married man) was involved in an affair with a
married woman, creating some of the leading gossip in England during the
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
During the French Revolution
, a Liberal member of
the clergy, supporter of the Third Estate, and author of the fiery pamphlet
What Is the Third Estate
. Sieyes led the
coup that overthrew the Directory and established the
Consulate, of which, he was one of the three consuls. Sieyes took on
Napoleon as one of the First Consul to be his "Saber."
Prussian minister from 1807 to 1808, when Napoleon forced him to leave
Prussia. From then on (1812-1815), he was an advisor in Czar Alexander I's
court. Made several modernizing changes in Prussia, primarily increasing the
legal freedoms of the lower classes.
French foreign minister under Napoleon, Talleyrand played politics so well
that he managed to stay in office under the two following regimes. Talleyrand
represented France at the Congress of Vienna.
Haitian revolutionary, who led a slave revolt in Haiti during the French
Revolution. Toussaint's government was initially sanctioned by the French, but
as Toussaint proved too uncontrollable and independently minded, Napoleon
ordered an invasion of the island in 1802 and captured Toussaint.
Duke of Wellington
British commander who, along with Blucher, took primary credit for defeating
Napoleon at Waterloo. Earlier, Wellington had also led the British forces
supporting the Spanish guerillas in the Peninsular War. Wellington later
entered British politics and served as Prime Minister.
War of 1812
During the Napoleonic Wars, the British made a policy of stopping US ships from
landing in European ports. Also, the British abused their dominance of the sea
to board American ships and "impress" sailors (force them into British navy
service). Ultimately, these conflicts led to the War of
, which began in 1812 and ended in 1814, and
which neither side decisively won.
Peace of Amiens
1802 pact by which the British and French agreed not to fight. 1802 was the
only year during all of the Napoleonic era when no European power was officially
at war with another European power.
December 2, 1805 battle, in which Napoleon's army defeated the Russian and
Austrian armies. The Russian army limped back to Poland while the Austrians
surrendered their Italian territory of Venetia to the French.
In 1806, Napoleon announced the Continental System with this decree.
Treaty of Chaumont
On March 9, 1814, the four powers that defeated Napoleon (Britain, Austria,
Prussia, Russia) all agreed to ally for 20 years, promising to fight together to
stop France if it ever got too powerful again.
The French Revolutionarygovernments had treated the Catholic Church in France
, and the government had
confiscated a great chunk of Church property. The Concordat, signed on July 15,
1801, represented a reconciliation between France and the Catholic Church. This
prevented the Catholic Church from being a source of opposition to
Congress of Vienna
1814 to 1815 conference of the European powers in which they decided how to
repartition Europe after defeating Napoleon. The Congress was one of the most
massive and significant treaties ever, and it created a Europe wherein the
balance of power prevented a Europe-wide war for a hundred years.
Treaty of Fontainebleau
Treaty in 1814 by which Napoleon was exiled to Elba and promised a stipend of 2
million francs a year (which he never received). Napoleon was also allowed to
keep the title of Emperor.
June 14, 1807 battle in which Napoleon defeated the Russian army in Poland.
Not wanting to retreat into Russia, Alexander I was forced to sign the
Treaty of Tilsit.
March 20, 1815 to July 8, 1815. During this period, Napoleon returned from
exile in Elba and tried to return to power. He was finally defeated at
Waterloo and sent to Saint Helena, where he died.
October 1813 battle (the Battle of Nations) in which Napoleon's army of raw
recruits was defeated by a four-nation alliance. Leipzig was the largest battle
in terms of numbers of soldiers up to that time.
Treaty of Luneville
February 1800 treaty by which the Austrians and French renewed the condition of
the Treaty of Campo Formio.
June 1800 battle in which Napoleon defeated Austria, forcing them to sign
the Treaty of Luneville and bringing the Second Coalition to an end.
Treaty of Paris
There have been innumerable treaties of Paris, but the one signed by Louis
XVIII on May 30, 1814 restored France to its 1792 boundaries.
1808-1814 war in the Iberian Peninsula, in which the Portuguese, Spanish, and
British (under Wellington) fought the French, who were trying to impose the
Treaty of Tilsit
An 1807 treaty requiring both Russia and Prussia to join the Continental
System. Russian, Prussia, and Austria actually declared war on Britain
following the treaty.
October 21, 1805 naval battle off the coast of Spain, in which Napoleon's
navy of 33 French and Spanish ships was decimated by the British fleet of 27
ships. Admiral Horatio Nelson commanded the British fleet, and lost his life
in the battle. The battle firmly established Britain's naval supremacy for the
rest of the 19th century.
June 18, 1815 battle in which Napoleon was finally defeated by the British
(under Wellington) and the Prussians (under Blucher). Napoleon had a
chance to attack the British forces before the Prussians were there to join in
the battle, but he made the crucial mistake of waiting for the muddy ground to
dry before attacking.