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44 BCE: Caesar defeats Pompeians at Munda Renewed as dictator, then as dictator for life. Assassinated March 15.

41-33: Second Triumvirate among Mark Antony, Lepidus, Octavian Antony's Parthian campaigns

33-30: Mark Antony—Octavian Civil War Octavian victorious at Actium, 30.

27 BCE - 14 CE: Augustus' (Octavian's) rule Principate est., 27 and 23. Advances along Rhine, renewed political stability.

14 CE - 38: Tiberius' rule Growing autocracy, secluded rule, judicial terrors.

38–41: Caligula's rule Caligula becomes increasingly insane, murdered by Praetorians

41-54: Claudius Administrative advances, frictions with Senate, conquest of Britain and Mauretania

54-68: Nero Good rule at first, then insanity; dynastic intrigues, Rome burns, Christians persecuted, Jewish Revolt begins.

69: Year of Four Emperors Legions revolt, turn on selves and state, Vespasian wins.

79-96: Titus and Domitian Jewish Revolt ended, increased autocracy, friction with Senate. Domitian murdered.

96-98: Nerva Alimenta, adoption of Trajan as heir.

98-117: Trajan Rome at peak of power, prestige. Parthian and Dacian campaigns.

117-138: Hadrian Retrenchment in Parthia, lack of foreign adventures, resentment of Italy and Senate and being 'demoted'.

138-161: Antoninus Pius Rome at peak of power, wealth, peace.

161-180: Rule of Marcus Aurelius

162-165: War Against Parthia Victories at Dura Europa, Ctesiphon.

165-180s: Plague in Roman Lands

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