Brooks, Cleanth and Warren, Robert Penn. "The Killers." The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: Critical Essays. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1975.
Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969.
Lamar, Howard R., ed. The Reader's Encyclopedia of the American West. New York: Crowell, 1977.
Tompkins, Jane. West of Everything: The Inner Life of Westerns. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Utley, Robert M. High Noon in Lincoln: Violence on the Western Frontier. Albuquerque, NM: The University of New Mexico Press, 1987.
Wilson, Edmund. The Shores of Light: A Literary Chronicle of the Twenties and Thirties. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1985.