Suggestions for Further Reading


How to Cite This SparkNote

Bottiglia, William F., ed. Voltaire: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice, 1968.

Crocker, Lester G. An Age of Crisis: Man and World in Eighteenth Century French Thought. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1959.

Keener, Frederick. The Chain of Becoming: The Philosophical Tale, the Novel, and a Neglected Realism of the Enlightenment. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von. Essays of Theodicy on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil. Trans. F.M. Huggard. Ed. Austin Farrer. London: Routledge, 1952.

Mason, Haydn. Candide: Optimism Demolished. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

Ridgeway, Ronald S. Voltaire and Sensibility. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1973.

Wade, Ira. Voltaire and Candide: A Study in the Fusion of History, Art, and Philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1959.

Worcester, David. The Art of Satire. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940.

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Adam and Eve

by sary56, August 20, 2013

"Moreover, in the Garden of Eden Adam and Eve enjoyed the fruits of nature without having to work..."
I don't think that's true. Genesis 2:15 says, "The LORD God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to work it and keep it." Adam's purpose was to work even before the fall, which happens in Genesis 3. Also, I don't believe that Adam and Eve fell from God's grace. Yes, God said "you shall surely die" if you eat of the fruit, and they did, but it was actually God's grace that made them go out of the garden to prevent them from li... Read more


30 out of 50 people found this helpful

Life life

by Jekemi, January 05, 2014

What I got from this book is that whether Panglos is right or not. Whether Pessimism or Optimism prevailed, it doesn't do any good to philosophy over it.
Man was placed in the garden to work, not to be idle.

I believe that in the end Candide gave up on arguing - he simply realised the pointlessness of doing it and that true happiness will be by living life without thinking about it the whole time.

Thanks for your post.



3 out of 4 people found this helpful

This Book is About...

by AlexM4ck, April 30, 2014

Honestly I don't think this book has anything to do with religion, right or wrong. Any type of theorizing, philosophy, formal religion, or even societal emphasis on what is important is represented as something negative. For example, all church figures are corrupt, philosophers Pangloss and Martin no matter what their opinions are either ignorant or miserable. The happiest (and eventually model) character is the farmer, who thinks and works for himself. Voltaire was jaded by the corruption of religion and hopeless optimism of philosophy and ... Read more


19 out of 24 people found this helpful