Butts, Leonard. The Novels of John Gardner: Making Life Art as a Moral Process. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.
Chavkin, Allan, ed. Conversations with John Gardner. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1990.
Heaney, Seamus, trans. Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000.
Henderson, Jeff, ed. Thor’s Hammer: Essays on John Gardner. Conway: University of Central Arkansas Press, 1985.
Howell, John M. Understanding John Gardner. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993.
McWilliams, Dean. John Gardner. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990.
Mendez-Egle, Beatrice, ed. John Gardner: True Art, Moral Art. Edinburg, Texas: Pan American University School of the Humanities, 1983.
Spent a lot of years working on 'Beowulf' and I reckon that the monsters represent human characters. In my view: Grendel represents Agnar, son of Ingeld; Grendel's Mum represents the daughter of Earl Swerting of Sweden (and the first wife of Ingeld); and the Dragon represents Onela, king of the Swedes. I think that there has been a scribal error right at the beginning of the poem, which has made Scyld's 'bearn' (Modern English, 'bairn') into Beowulf the First. Thus the real parallels of the poem have been lost.
As far as the first tw
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