Skip over navigation

Les Misérables

Victor Hugo

“Saint-Denis,” Books One–Seven

“Marius,” Book Eight: The Noxious Poor

“Saint-Denis,” Books One–Seven, page 2

page 1 of 2

Summary: Book One: A Few Pages of History

The narrator explains the causes and consequences of the 1830 July Revolution in France. After Napoléon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815, the monarchy tries to reassert the rights that it enjoyed before the French Revolution of 1789. Since the post-1815 government has been hampered by unsuccessful military campaigns and social injustice, the monarchy mistakenly believes that it can slowly rescind the rights it granted in 1815. When it attempts to do so, the government collapses, resulting in the July Revolution of 1830.

The new government, however, faces as many problems as the old one. The new king, Louis-Philippe, tries to find a middle ground among the different political factions but succeeds only in alienating all sides. His miscalculations lead to another revolution in 1832. Led by Enjolras, student revolutionaries begin to organize a massive political insurrection in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, a district of Paris.

Summary: Book Two: Eponine

Marius continues to obsess over Cosette. He still does not know her real name and refers to her as “the lark.” He finds a park called the Field of the Lark and goes there every day to soothe the pain of his loss. Little does he know that Eponine, out of her love for Marius, has tracked down Cosette. Eponine tells Marius that Cosette and Valjean are living in Saint-Germain, a Paris suburb. Eponine does not tell Marius that she saw Cosette in the garden of the house while observing the house on behalf of an imprisoned robber. Eponine tells Marius to follow her to the house. He fails to realize that Eponine is in love with him and tries to hand her a five-franc coin. She sadly lets the coin fall to the ground and tells Marius that she does not want his money.

Summary: Book Three: The House on the Rue Plumet

Tucked away in their house on Rue Plumet in Saint-Germain, Cosette and Valjean once again live a happy life free of fear. Nevertheless, problems begin to develop—not from outside this time, but from within. Cosette, who has lived with Valjean since she was eight years old, is blossoming into a young woman. She begins to sense that Valjean has chosen the seclusion of Saint-Germain for reasons other than merely hiding from Javert. Ever since Valjean ended their regular visits to the Luxembourg Gardens, it has become clear that he wants to hide Cosette from other men. Cosette thinks wistfully of the young man in the gardens. Having never had romance in his life, Valjean has no personal experience with love to help him relate to Cosette’s yearnings for a man she has never met. At the same time, Valjean is painfully aware that Cosette is all that he has in life. Losing Cosette would mean losing everything.

Summary: Book Four: Aid from Below or from Above

The street urchin Gavroche overhears Father Mabeuf worrying about his finances. Gavroche slips away and sees the murderous Montparnasse pounce on an old man. With great agility and strength, the old man, whom we recognize as Valjean, defends himself. He pins Montparnasse to the ground and lectures him about his life of crime. He then gives Montparnasse his wallet and lets Montparnasse go. Gavroche deftly picks Montparnasse’s pocket and throws the wallet full of money over Mabeuf’s wall. Mabeuf is ecstatic to find a wallet next to him, and his housekeeper declares that the money must have come from heaven.

Summary: Book Five: An End Unlike the Beginning

After a few months of discord, Cosette and Valjean begin to live in harmony again. Their relationship reverts to the bliss they enjoyed during Cosette’s childhood. Marius, however, interrupts this harmony. He has been spying on Cosette ever since Eponine gave him the address of the house in Saint-Germain. One night, he leaves a declaration of his love for Cosette. The next evening, after Valjean has left for his nightly walk around town, Marius enters the garden and professes his love for Cosette. She reciprocates Marius’s feelings.

More Help

Previous Next

by kiiiiid, January 30, 2013

and gavroche dies and the rest of france build a barricade and end the french revolution


15 out of 73 people found this helpful

Les Miserables Analysis

by Adi31415, March 28, 2013

Les Miserables is based around the turning point in French history, and it explores the nature of this change in terms of society, and uses this as a basis for explaining the revolution. It explains how the ‘miserables’, or ‘victims’, damned into a life of thievery and being the scum of the Earth aren’t inherently bad. The society which has not given them a chance forces them to be bad, or do bad things. Instead of understanding their inner goodness and their plight to change their ways, or giving them some kindness or hope, they a... Read more


288 out of 304 people found this helpful

Correction to Note 1 in Study Section

by IleneRM, October 24, 2013

It says: "Fantine falls in love with Tholomyès, a debonair upper-class student who obeys upper-class social customs and leaves Fantine even though she is pregnant with his child." This is wrong. Fantine was not pregnant. Ten months after the affair ended, Cosette was almost 3 years old; therefore she was already born when he left Fantine.


4 out of 7 people found this helpful

See all 5 readers' notes   →

Follow Us