Search Menu

The Last of the Mohicans

James Fenimore Cooper


Chapters I–II

page 1 of 2

Chapters I–II

Chapters I–II

Chapters I–II

Chapters I–II

Summary: Chapter I

The novel takes place during the third year of the French and Indian War. The narrator explains that the land itself, populated by hostile Indian tribes, is as dangerous as the war. The armies do not want to battle, and the unpredictability of the terrain unnerves them. The French general Montcalm has allied himself with several of the Indian tribes native to America and is moving a large army south in an attempt to take Fort William Henry from the British. Magua, an Indian scout, intercepts the information about the impending attack on the fort and relays it to the British General Webb, to whom he is loyal. Webb decides to send reinforcements to Fort William Henry to help Colonel Munro, who commands the fort. Shortly after the reinforcements leave for Fort William Henry, Webb dispatches the young Major Heyward to accompany Alice and Cora Munro, the colonel’s daughters, who insist upon visiting their father. As they leave, an Indian runner dashes by them. Alice watches him with mixed admiration and repulsion.

Summary: Chapter II

The Indian runner, whose name is Magua, agrees to guide Heyward and the young women to Fort William Henry by means of a shortcut known only to the Indians. Soon after they leave Fort Edward, they meet a stranger. We later learn his name is David Gamut. Gamut is a psalmodist, a man who worships by singing Old Testament psalms. The mincing and dainty Gamut is out of place in the menacing forest. He left Fort Edward and lost his way. He announces his intention to join the group. Annoyed at Gamut’s presumption, Heyward nevertheless shows interest in Gamut’s claim to be an instructor, and asks Gamut if he is a mathematician or a scientist. Gamut replies humbly that he knows only the limited insights of psalmody, the then-popular practice of setting biblical teachings to music.

Cora is amused by the stranger. Gamut joins their party and sings a religious song native to New England. He behaves seriously and venerably, as though delivering a sermon, and accompanies his psalmody with dramatic hand gestures. Magua eventually interrupts this performance, muttering a few words to Heyward, who translates his words to the others: they must be silent since hostile Indian tribes fill the forest.

Major Heyward quickly and confidently scans the forest, pleased that he sees no sign of Indians. His unfamiliarity with the forest makes him unable to see what the trees hide, and he does not notice a wild-eyed Indian peering out at them through the branches.

Analysis: Chapters I–II

The opening two chapters of The Last of the Mohicans establish war, both historical and imagined, as the novel’s foundation. Cooper uses historical facts, rooting his narrative in actual, lived events in the colonial history of the United States. However, he also roots his narrative in his own imagined war. Cooper wants to emphasize the tensions between mankind and the land, between natives and colonists, and between nature and culture. He does this by using history as a frame and filling that frame with fictional events.

Cooper’s characters illustrate the various ways that national cultures interact. The chronology of the first two chapters foreshadows the eventual colonial domination over the Indian frontier. In Chapter I, friendly and hostile Indian tribes rule the terrain that so daunts the whites. In Chapter II, Gamut gives a sophisticated biblical performance, ignoring the Indians as he sings. Although Cooper gestures at the eventual dominance of the whites, he also makes the white Gamut a figure of fun. Gamut behaves prissily in the menacing forest and then puts the lives of his companions at risk. Even Gamut’s biblical knowledge does not dignify him; he is identified as a New England religious psalmodist only because Magua, the Indian informant, is familiar with psalmody. Heyward, although less foolish than Gamut, also acquits himself badly. He has a greatly inflated sense of his own skill and wrongly determines that no danger exists after taking a cursory glance around the woods.

Test Your Understanding with the Chapters I–II Quiz

Take a quiz on this section
Test Your Understanding with the Chapters I–II Quiz



Besides the war itself, what concerns both the English and the French armies?
Winter weather
Test Your Understanding with the Chapters I–II Quiz

Chapters I–II QUIZ

Test Your Understanding with the Chapters I–II Quiz

More Help

Previous Next
The role of religion according to James Fenimore Cooper

by SeekJesus, April 20, 2014

I am sad to see that here it is indirectly and wrongly suggested that Cooper diminishes the role of religion, or that he regards it as a "useless" in the wilderness. You're not being fair to Cooper since he is not using the character of David Garmout to criticize the role of religion in general. To assume such interpretation would be to neglect Cooper’s own position towards religion.
It's worth stating that James Fenimore Cooper was actually a religious man, and not only the great support he gave to his Episcopal Church is a testimon


5 out of 7 people found this helpful

Wrong sister

by disinterestedspectator, January 15, 2017

It is Cora, not Alice, that looks at the Indian with "mixed admiration and repulsion" at the end of the first chapter.

essay help

by LeonMcMillen, August 08, 2017

I thought I was good at writing essays all through freshman and sophomore year of high school but then in my junior year I got this awful teacher (I doubt you’re reading this, but screw you Mr. Murphy) He made us write research papers or literature analysis essays that were like 15 pages long. It was ridiculous. Anyway, I found

and since then I’ve been ordering term papers from this one writer. His stuff is amazing and he always finishes it super quickly. Good luck with your order!

See all 4 readers' notes   →