Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
full title · Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself
author · Frederick Douglass
type of work · Autobiography
genre · Slave narrative; bildungsroman
language · English
time and place written · 1845; Massachusetts
date of first publication · 1845
publisher · American Anti-Slavery Society
narrator · Frederick Douglass
point of view · Douglass writes in the first person
tone · Douglass’s tone is generally straightforward and engaged, as befits a philosophical treatise or a political position paper. He also occasionally uses an ironic tone, or the tone of someone emotionally overcome.
tense · Past
setting (time) · 1818–1841
setting (place) · Eastern Shore of Maryland; Baltimore; New York City; New Bedford, Massachusetts
protagonist · Frederick Douglass
major conflict · Douglass struggles to free himself, mentally and physically, from slavery.
rising action · At the age of ten or eleven, Douglass is sent to live in Baltimore with Hugh and Sophia Auld. Douglass overhears a conversation between them and comes to understand that whites maintain power over black slaves by keeping them uneducated. Douglass resolves to educate himself and escape from slavery. However, he is later taken from the Aulds and placed with Edward Covey, a slave “breaker,” for a year. Under Covey’s brutal treatment, Douglass loses his desire to learn and escape.
climax · Douglass decides to fight back against Covey’s brutal beatings. The shocked Covey does not whip Douglass ever again.
falling action · Douglass is hired to William Freeland, a relatively kinder master. Douglass starts educating his fellow slaves and planning his escape. Douglass’s plan to escape is discovered. He is put in jail and then sent back to Baltimore with the Aulds to learn a trade. Douglass becomes a caulker and is eventually allowed to hire out his own time. Douglass saves money and escapes to New York City, where he marries Anna Murray, a free black woman from Baltimore. They move to New Bedford, Massachusetts, where Douglass is eventually hired as a lecturer for the American Anti-Slavery Society.
themes · Ignorance as a tool of slavery; knowledge as the path to freedom; slavery’s damaging effect on slaveholders; slaveholding as a perversion of Christianity
motifs · The victimization of female slaves; the treatment of slaves as property; freedom in the city
symbols · White-sailed ships; Sandy’s root; The Columbian Orator
foreshadowing · Douglass’s concentration on the direction of steamboats traveling to Philadelphia in Chapter VIII; Douglass’s premonition that his escape plans had been revealed in Chapter X