full title · The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War
author · Stephen Crane
type of work · Novel
genre · Psychological novel, war novel
language · English
time and place written · 1893–1895, New York
date of first publication · October 5, 1895
publisher · D. Appleton and Company
narrator · The narrator speaks from the third-person limited omniscient point of view, relaying the thoughts and feelings of Henry but not those of the other characters.
protagonist · Henry Fleming
antagonists · The Confederate Army; the Union general who calls the soldiers of the 304th Regiment “mule drivers” and “mud diggers”
point of view · Henry Fleming’s
setting · An unspecified time during the Civil War; the battle described in the novel is most likely a fictional account of the Battle at Chancellorsville, which took place May 2–6, 1863.
falling action · After capturing the enemy’s flag, Henry reflects on his experiences in battle and decides that he is a man of courage.
tense · Past
foreshadowing · Henry’s early conversations with Jim Conklin and Wilson establish the choice he will later face in battle: whether to fight or flee; Henry’s encounters with death (the corpse in the woods and Jim Conklin) anticipate Henry’s acceptance of the universe’s indifference.
tones · Detached, journalistic, realistic, impressionistic, sardonic, humorous, pathetic, violent
themes · Traditional versus realistic conceptions of courage, honor, and manhood; the human instinct to survive as pitted against the universe’s grand indifference; the struggle between self-interest and group obligation; the psychological effects of realizing one’s own mortality; development from innocence to experience
motifs · Noise (gossip, battle, bravado) versus silence; youth and egoism versus maturity and selflessness; mortality as a defining principle of courage and honor; accepting one’s past as a necessary (and humbling) step toward maturity
symbols · Because Crane was so invested in portraying a young soldier’s experience as accurately as possible, the novel is not highly symbolic. There are a few exceptions: the dead soldier in the “chapel of trees”; the red sun setting after Jim Conklin’s death (nature’s indifference to human existence); the flag (beauty and invincibility).
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