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The Red Badge of Courage

Stephen Crane

Themes, Motifs & Symbols

Analysis of Major Characters

Chapter I

Themes

Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
Courage

Given the novel’s title, it is no surprise that courage—defining it, desiring it, and, ultimately, achieving it—is the most salient element of the narrative. As the novel opens, Henry’s understanding of courage is traditional and romantic. He assumes that, like a war hero of ancient Greece, he will return from battle either with his shield or on it. Henry’s understanding of courage has more to do with the praise of his peers than any internal measure of his bravery. Within the novel’s first chapter, Henry recalls his mother’s advice, which runs counter to his own notions. She cares little whether Henry earns himself a praiseworthy name; instead, she instructs him to meet his responsibilities honestly and squarely, even if it means sacrificing his own life.

The gap that exists between Henry’s definition of courage and the alternative that his mother suggests fluctuates throughout The Red Badge of Courage, sometimes narrowing (when Henry fights well in his first battle) and sometimes growing wider (when he abandons the tattered soldier). At the end of the novel, as the mature Henry marches victoriously from battle, a more subtle and complex understanding of courage emerges: it is not simply a function of other people’s opinions, but it does incorporate egocentric concerns such as a soldier’s regard for his reputation.

Manhood

Throughout the novel, Henry struggles to preserve his manhood, his understanding of which parallels his understanding of courage. At first, he relies on very traditional, even clichéd, notions. He laments that education and religion have tamed men of their natural savagery and made them so pale and domestic that there remain few ways for a man to distinguish himself other than on the battlefield. Having this opportunity makes Henry feel grateful to be participating in the war. As he makes his way from one skirmish to the next, he becomes more and more convinced that his accumulated experiences will earn him the praise of women and the envy of men; he will be a hero, a real man, in their eyes. These early conceptions of manhood are simplistic, romantic, adolescent fantasies.

Jim Conklin and Wilson stand as symbols of a more human kind of manhood. They are self-assured without being braggarts and are ultimately able to own up to their faults and shortcomings. Wilson, who begins the novel as an obnoxiously loud soldier, later exposes his own fear and vulnerability when he asks Henry to deliver a yellow envelope to his family should he die in battle. In realizing the relative insignificance of his own life, Wilson frees himself from the chains that bind Henry, becoming a man of “quiet belief in his purposes and abilities.” By the novel’s end, Henry makes a bold step in the same direction, learning that the measure of one’s manhood lies more in the complex ways in which one negotiates one’s mistakes and responsibilities than in one’s conduct on the battlefield.

Self-Preservation

An anxious desire for self-preservation influences Henry throughout the novel. When a pinecone that he throws after fleeing the battle makes a squirrel scurry, he believes that he has stumbled upon a universal truth: each being will do whatever it takes, including running from danger, in order to preserve itself. Henry gets much mileage out of this revelation, as he uses it to justify his impulse to retreat from the battlefield. His conceits—namely that the good of the army and, by extension, the world, requires his survival—drive him to behave abominably. He not only runs from battle, but also abandons the tattered soldier, though he knows that the soldier is almost certain to die if he does not receive assistance. Soon after his encounter with the squirrel, Henry discovers the corpse of a soldier. This sets in motion Henry’s realization that the world is largely indifferent to his life and the questions that preoccupy him. Courage and honor endow a man with a belief in the worth of preserving the lives of others, but the pervasiveness of death on the battlefield compels Henry to question the importance of these qualities. This weighing of values begs consideration of the connection between the survival instinct and vanity.

The Universe’s Disregard for Human Life

Henry’s realization that the natural world spins on regardless of the manner in which men live and die is perhaps the most difficult lesson that Henry learns as a soldier. It disabuses him of his naïve, inexperienced beliefs regarding courage and manhood. Shortly after his encounter with the squirrel in the woods, Henry stumbles upon a dead soldier, whose rotting body serves as a powerful reminder of the universe’s indifference to human life. As the drama of the war rages on around him, Henry continues to occupy his mind with questions concerning the nature of courage and honor and the possibilities of gaining glory. Death, he assumes, would stop this drama cold. Yet, when he encounters the corpse, he finds that death is nothing more than an integral and unremarkable part of nature. As he reflects at the end of the novel: “He had been to touch the great death, and found that, after all, it was but the great death.”

Together, Henry’s encounters with the squirrel and the corpse form one of the most important passages in the novel, for it is here that Crane establishes the formidable opposing forces in Henry’s mind: the vain belief that human life deserves such distinctions as courage and honor, and the stark realization that, regardless of such distinctions, all human life meets the same end.

Motifs

Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
Noise and Silence

Great and terrible sounds saturate much of the novel. The book opens with soldiers chattering, gossiping, and arguing about when and if they will see action on the battlefield. Soon enough, the pop of gunfire and exploding artillery drown out their conversations. The reader comes to associate these sounds with boys, battle—both physical and mental—and bravado. Wilson, who often airs his opinions indignantly, embodies these associations early in the novel when Crane refers to him almost exclusively as “the loud soldier.” The transformation of Wilson and Henry into men of quiet resolve marks a process of maturation, wherein a peaceful disposition wins out over an unquiet one and the security of feeling courage internally silences the need for public recognition.

Youth and Maturity

Although the novel spans no more than a few weeks, the reader witnesses a profound change in the characters of both Henry and Wilson. Though these men do not grow considerably older during the course of the narrative, one can best describe the psychological development that the novel charts for them as the passage from youth into maturity. Innocence gives way to experience, and the unfounded beliefs of boys make way for the quietly assured, bedrock convictions of men.

Symbols

Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
The Dead Soldier

In writing The Red Badge of Courage, Crane tried to render battle, and the lives of common soldiers, as authentically as possible. Accordingly, a realistic, almost journalistic style of writing dominates the narrative, leaving little room for the development of an overt, more literary system of symbols. However, there are a few noteworthy symbols in the novel. One of these is the dead soldier, who represents the insignificance of mortal concerns. Henry encounters the corpse, decaying and covered by ants, at a crucial moment: he has just reassured himself that he was right to flee battle and that the welfare of the army depends upon soldiers being wise enough to preserve themselves. Then the dead soldier, whose anonymity strips him of any public recognition of courage and glory (regardless of whether or not he deserved them), forces Henry to begin to question himself and the values by which he measures his actions.

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