**
Base Ten
** -
System in which ten digits are used in combination to represent all numbers.
The system also uses the concept of place value, wherein each place has a
value greater by a factor of 10 than the value of the place to its right. The
digit in each place represents a number that is equal to that numeral times 10
raised to a certain power. For example, the "5" in "6,589" represents
5×10^{2}
.

**
Composite
** -
A whole number that has at least one factor besides 1 and itself; e.g. any whole
number greater than 1 and not prime.

**
Divisible
** -
A number is *divisible* by another number if it can be divided equally by
that number; that is, if it yields a whole number when divided by that number.
12 is divisible by 4 because
12/4 = 3
, and 3 is a whole number. 12 is not
divisible by 10, because
12/10 = 1.2
, and 1.2 is not a whole number.

**
Decimal System
** -
Our system of numeration. The digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, used in
combination, represent all numbers.

**
Factor
** -
A number by which another number is divisible. 1, 2, 3, and 6 are all factors
of 6, because 6/1, 6/2, 6/3, and 6/6 are all whole numbers.

**
Greatest Common Factor
** -
The greatest (largest) number that divides two or more given numbers.

**
Least Common Multiple
** -
The smallest number that is divisible by two or more given numbers.

**
Multiple
** -
A number that can be obtained by multiplying a given number by a whole number.
6, 9, and 12 are all multiples of 3, because
3×2 = 6
,
3×3 = 9
, and
3×4 = 12
. If
*a*
is a factor of
*b*
, then
*b*
is a multiple of
*a*
.

**
Place Value
** -
The value of a digit, based on where it appears in a numeral. The value of each
position in a numeral is ten times the value of the position to its right. The
numeral 30,482 has a "2" in the ones place, an "8" in the tens place, a "4" in
the hundreds place, a "0" in the thousands place, and a "3" in the ten thousands
place. The number 1.567 has a "1" in the ones place, a "5" in the tenths place,
a "6" in the hundredths place, and a "7" in the thousandths place.

**
Prime
** -
A positive whole number divisible only by 1 and itself. Following are the first
fifteen prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47
... (Note: 1 is not considered prime).

**
Prime Factorization
** -
A number written as the product of its prime factors.

**
Relatively Prime
** -
Two numbers that have no common prime factors and thus have a greatest common
factor of 1. For example, 64 and 295 are relatively prime, since they share no
prime factors.

**
Whole Number
** -
The set of numbers which includes zero and all the counting numbers--no
fractions or decimals. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...