Nietzsche considers the demands that Christianity makes: for renunciation of freedom, pride, self-confidence of spirit, and much else besides. This Christian saintliness is best exemplified by the priestly type, who denies everything good in life and submits himself to isolation, humility, and chastity. This ascetic ideal has held a great fascination in all places and times, as the saint then effects a reversal whereby he is able to make his self- debasement appear as the highest form of good. The power of the saint, Nietzsche says, lies precisely in the mystery of the value of all this self-denial. Someone willingly submitting himself to such torture must know something the rest of us don't know. The saint exemplifies a new form of power, a new will to power.
Nietzsche characterizes us today as being atheistic, but still religious. The ideas of God as father, judge, or rewarder are no longer valid. God does not seem to hear us, nor to respond. Modern philosophy has been a great help to the growth of atheism. In questioning the subject-predicate form of grammar, it has questioned whether there really is an "I" distinct from its predicates. In doubting the sovereignty of this "I" we doubt the existence of the soul. Also, religion demands a leisure class that can look down on work, seeing it as a distraction from spiritual matters. It should come as no surprise that this industrious age is turning away from religion.
While Nietzsche suggests that the modern age is atheistic, he thinks it is marked by an ever stronger religious spirit, albeit one that has evolved beyond theism. Religion demands sacrifice, and in primitive religions, this sacrifice was of a loved one or a first born: one was asked to sacrifice one's nearest and dearest. This spirit of sacrifice was refined so that we no longer sacrificed others, but sacrificed ourselves instead. We surrendered our will, our freedom, and our strength to our God. Having completely sacrificed ourselves, the next logical step was that taken by Christianity: we sacrificed our God, the one thing in which we had placed all our hopes and faith. Having sacrificed our God, we are now left with nothing, and worship rocks, gravity, "the nothing": we have traded God in for science, and worship that instead.
If we delve deep enough into this pessimism and nihilism, however, Nietzsche suggests we might find the most life- affirming spirit of all, the person that is not only reconciled with all that is, but would wish it repeated into all eternity.
Religion can mean different things for different people. To the ruling classes, it is a means to relate to their subjects and to keep them in line. To a rising class, it teaches self-discipline and prepares it for future rule. To the masses, it teaches them to rest content in their lowly position. But religion does not only serve others' purposes; Christianity has purposes of its own. Primarily, it seeks to preserve and care for the human species. This means preserving the majority who are sick and weak of spirit. As a result, it comes to value the suffering and the weakness in those it cares for. It effects a total reversal in our moral valuations, so that weakness and suffering are considered "good" and health and strength are considered "evil." While we can admire the "spiritual men" of Europe, Nietzsche concludes that this devaluation of all our noble instincts has bred a Europe of mediocrity and banality.
Underlying much of what Nietzsche says here is the important contrast between master morality and slave morality. According to Nietzsche, morality was originally a matter of saying that health, strength, freedom, and the like were good, and that their undesirable opposites were bad. This morality was reversed by the Judeo- Christian "slave revolt of morality," where those who were neither healthy, strong, nor free came to resent the people in positions of power and identified them as "evil." They then came to identify themselves--weak, sick, and poor--as "good." This is the remarkable reversal of the ascetic priest or saint, who finds power in a turning-inward of all aggressive instincts.
Through epigenetic inheritance, some of the experiences of the parents may pass to future generations. At the same time, the epigenome remains flexible as environmental conditions continue to change. Epigenetic inheritance may allow an organism to continually adjust its gene expression to fit its environment - without changing its DNA code.
We used to think that a... Read more→