Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals. Trans. by H. J. Paton. Harper & Row: New York, 1964.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason.
Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason.
Kant, Immanuel. Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Philosophy of Right.
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Reason in History.
Nietzsche, Freidrich. Beyond Good and Evil.
The last note on Darwin and evolution displays a common misconception about evolution, that is, the anthropomorphism of a process. Organs do not develop to help with survival, the organs that are best suited for survival survive. There is no purpose in an organ's origins.
It is misleading to understand Kant as part of the Enlightenment tradition. While he was a contemporary of the Age of Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason (like J. Locke), he certainly was not in agreement with the Enlightenment movement. As his own Critiques show, he was not confident that reason, understood by others as the conceptualizing of our experiences and thereby understanding our world (what he calls "Pure Reason"), was the proper guide to our actions and to our societies. This is why he was so similar to Rousseau (another Counter-E... Read more→