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The quantity is equal to:

One reason why the sky appears blue is because:

If
*μ*
_{1}
and
*phi*
_{2}
are solutions to the wave equation, which of the following is *not* also
a solution, if
*a*
and
*b*
are real constants.

The direction of propagation of an electromagnetic wave is the same as:

Photons always propagate with speed
*c*
, but light appears to travel at a speed different from
*c*
in dense media. How can we account for this phenomenon?

Which of the following is true: I) A reflected beam always has the same irradiance as the
incident beam; II) a reflected beam lies in the same plane as the incident beam; III) a reflected
beam always makes an angle
*θ* = sin^{-1}(*n*
_{t}/*n*
_{i})
with the normal to the interface.

The irradiance of a light ray is proportional to:

The phase velocity of the wave described by
*ψ* = *A* sin(*kx* + *σt* + *Π*/2)
is:

The period of the wave described by
*ψ* = *A* cos(*kx* + *σt* + *Π*)
is:

If we have electric and magnetic fields given by:

E =
E
_{0}cos(kz - σt) |
|||

B =
B
_{0}cos(kz - σt) |

In SI units, what conditions need to be satisfied if these fields are to satisfy Maxwell's equations?

Which of the following functions of space and time defines a wave with speed
*v*
in the negative
*x*
direction?

The profile of a wave with equation
*ψ*(*x*, *t*) =
is equal to:

Maxwell's equations: I) predict the speed of an electromagnetic wave to be
*μ*
_{0}
*ε*
_{0}
; II) imply that an
electric field changing in time will produce a magnetic field; III) impose boundary conditions that must be
satisfied at an interface between two media.

Which of the following is correct:

The wavelength of a photon with an energy of 3.6 eV is:

Which of the following would * not * be a good description of a photon:

A photon has a chance of being absorbed by an atom, only if:

Fermat's principle states that:

Light behaves in accordance with Fermat's principle because:

The Fresnel Equations: I) are a consequence of Maxwell's equations; II) imply a phase shift of 180
^{
o
}
when light in vacuum with electric field perpendicular to the plane of incidence reflects from a surface; III) imply that polarization can be achi
eved by reflection.

Total internal reflection can occur:

The critical angle for an air-water interface (the index of refraction of water is
*n* = 1.33
) is about:

The spectrum observed when white light is shone through a prism is best explained by:

For a substance with natural frequencies in the infra-red range the color that will exhibit a higher index of refraction, and the type of dispersion are respectively:

An expression for the absolute index of refraction is:

A light wave in air enters a substance in which light travels at
2.64×10^{8}
m/s at an angle of 48
^{
o
}
to the surface. The angle of refraction is:

Which of the following is a correct expression for the relative amplitude of a reflected ray (electric field perpendicular to the incident plane)?

Images formed by a convex mirror are:

For a concave mirror of focal length 5 centimeters, the image of an object placed 7 centimeters from the mirror will be:

A convex lens has a focal length of 3 centimeters. How far from the mirror is the object, if the image formed is 4 centimeters away?

What is the focal length of a plano-convex (planar on one side and convex on the other) lens made of glass with index of refraction
*n* = 1.40
and with the curved side having a radius of curvature of 20 centimeters?

What is the magnification of an image formed by an object 10 centimeters distant from a concave mirror of focal length 2 centimeters.

Concave mirrors can suffer from:

Concave lenses can suffer from:

Virtual images are so called because:

To form a diminished image with a convex lens, the object must be placed:

The radius of curvature of a convex mirror of focal length -8 centimeters is:

All images formed by diverging lenses are:

Which of the following is true for all lenses:

If
*x*
_{i}
is the distance between the image and the focal point on the same side of the lens (for a convex lens), an alternate expression for the transverse magnification is:

Which of the following is * not * a consequence of interference effects?

In Young's Double Slit Experiment, increasing the wavelength of light will serve to:

In a Young's Double Slit interference pattern, the fourth maximum has an irradiance that is roughly:

If the finite width of the slits was taken into account, one would expect the fourth maximum of the double slit interference pattern to be:

For a single slit, light is heading in a direction such that rays from a point source in the middle of the slit travels exactly
*λ*
farther than light at the very edge of the slit. The point at which this light arrives on a distant screen will be:

If
*β* =
, the zeroes of irradiance for a single slit occur when:

Light reflecting from a dense medium is:

Randomly polarized light moving along the
*x*
axis in the positive
*x*
-direction is incident on an atomic oscillator at the origin. If you are at the point
(0, *y*
_{0}, 0)
, you will observe:

A birefringent material is best described as:

Light is propagating is a direction directly away from you, with an electric field that appears to be rotating in its orientation in the counterclockwise direction. The polarization state of such a wave is: