- The three processes involved in memory are encoding, storage, and retrieval.
- Encoding is putting information into memory and includes structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding.
- In storage, information is maintained in a three-stage process involving sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
- Working memory is an active system that allows people to remember, manipulate, and store information.
- Long-term memory is organized into categories, as well as by familiarity, relevance, and relationship to other memories.
- Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory. Retrieval cues are stimuli that help get information out of memory.
- Retrieval cues include associations, context, and mood.
Types of Memory
- Implicit memory is unconscious retaining of information, whereas explicit memory is conscious, intentional remembering.
- Declarative memory is recall of factual information, whereas procedural memory is recall of how to do things.
- Semantic memory is recall of general facts, while episodic memory is recall of personal facts.
- Hermann Ebbinghaus was the first researcher to conduct scientific studies of forgetting. Using himself as a subject, he discovered that much information is forgotten within a few hours after learning it.
- Retention is the proportion of learned information that is remembered.
- Researchers use three methods to measure forgetting and retention: recall, recognition, and relearning.
- Causes of forgetting include ineffective encoding, decay, interference, retrieval failure, and motivated forgetting.
- Memory is enhanced by rehearsal, overlearning, distributed practice, minimizing interference, deep processing, organizing information, mnemonic devices, and visual imagery.
The Biology of Memory
- The hippocampus is involved in long-term memory.
- Memories may be stored in different areas of the brain.
- There may specific neural circuits for particular memories.
Distortions of Memory
- Memories are reconstructed in many ways after events happen, which makes them prone to distortion.
- Memories can be distorted by schema, source amnesia, the misinformation effect, the hindsight bias, the overconfidence effect, and confabulation.