The three processes involved in memory are encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Encoding is putting information into memory and includes structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding.
In storage, information is maintained in a three-stage process involving sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term
Working memory is an active system that allows people to remember,
manipulate, and store information.
Long-term memory is organized into categories, as well as by familiarity, relevance, and relationship to other
Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory. Retrieval cues are stimuli that help get information out of memory.
Retrieval cues include associations, context, and mood.
Types of Memory
Implicit memory is unconscious retaining of information, whereas explicit memory is conscious, intentional remembering.
Declarative memory is recall of factual information, whereas procedural memory is recall of how to do things.
Semantic memory is recall of general facts, while episodic memory is recall of personal facts.
Hermann Ebbinghaus was the first researcher to conduct scientific studies
of forgetting. Using himself as a subject, he discovered that much information is forgotten
within a few hours after learning it.
Retention is the proportion of learned information that is remembered.
Researchers use three methods to measure forgetting and retention: recall, recognition, and relearning.
Causes of forgetting include ineffective encoding, decay, interference, retrieval failure, and motivated
Memory is enhanced by rehearsal, overlearning, distributed practice, minimizing interference, deep processing, organizing
information, mnemonic devices, and visual imagery.
The Biology of Memory
The hippocampus is involved in long-term memory.
Memories may be stored in different areas of the brain.
There may specific neural circuits for particular memories.
Distortions of Memory
Memories are reconstructed in many ways after events happen, which makes them prone to
Memories can be distorted by schema, source amnesia, the misinformation effect, the hindsight bias, the overconfidence
effect, and confabulation.