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Facing Darius at Issus

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While Alexander continued to defeat Persian forces on land, the Persian fleet attempted to provoke the League fleet to battle. Despite Parmenion's urging, Alexander had several reasons to avoid combat. First, he feared that a defeat would expose a weakness and encourage rebellion in Greece. More important, he recognized that he had little to gain from engagement, as he could more gradually dissolve the Persian fleet by cutting off its access to the ports he controlled. Alexander therefore made the momentous, if risky, decision to disband the League fleet and maintain only twenty Athenian ships.

After Miletus, Alexander's next objective was Caria, which had been ruled by Pixodarus, the satrap who tried to marry his daughter to Alexander's half-brother. Pixodarus himself had forced his sister, Ada, out of power, so Ada now sought to ally her faction with Alexander, Pixodarus having died shortly before. Before invading the city, Alexander therefore stopped in Alinda, where Ada was living in exile. She adopted him as her son, and he gained the loyalty of her significant faction. Alexander's first aim was to dismantle Halicarnassus, the capital city of Caria.

Leading the defense of Halicarnassus was Memnon, the mercenary general whom Alexander faced at Granicus. Despite the implicit insult to the Persian nobility, Darius, the Persian king, had appointed Memnon as governor of the coastal regions of Asia Minor, as well as the admiral of the fleet. The Persians had some early successes, but the Macedonians gradually wore them down. The turning point came when the Persians launched a surprise offensive, which came close to overpowering the Macedonians until the veteran soldiers of the phalanx joined the battle. Again, superior discipline won out, as the Macedonians gradually pushed the Persians back to their city. During the rush to their gates, the Persians were forced to shut out some of their own men in order to keep the Macedonians out of the city–some 1,000 fell in this manner. Though the Persian attack was valiant, Memnon's failure made the city's fall inevitable, and he was forced to sneak his fleet and the remaining mercenaries away.

The difficult siege tested the Macedonians considerably–and it cost them many men–but their success meant the securing of another major naval base. Alexander returned the state to Ada, though he would install his own ruler in Caria after her death. Winter was approaching, a time when battles traditionally ceased. Alexander even sent all newly married men home on leave, a move that greatly bolstered his popularity.

The winter would not be a complete vacation, however. Alexander still had hopes of reducing the remaining Persian bases along the coastline, so that an assault on its center could be started in the spring. One particular challenge involved the crossing of the Climax gorge along the shorter but more challenging seashore route, rendered impassable when strong southerly winds raised the water level. The winds changed direction just before the party reached the Climax, and they were able to pass with little difficulty. This fortunate turn was seen as divine intervention, as if the sea had withdrawn in deference to Alexander. Soon the first year of the campaign was nearing its end. All of the Greek cities had been liberated from Persian rule, but the Macedonians had yet to face a full-scale imperial army.

Alexander met up with Parmenion's army in Phrygia. The Macedonians continued to overcome city after city. The Persians would often clear out before Alexander arrived, but only after burning everything that would have been useful to him. Concerned about the failure of his satraps and generals to hinder Alexander's troops, Darius prepared to meet them with his own army.

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useful website

by Carter_liam, February 09, 2015

This site should be useful to learn more about the history of this great man

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