Aga Khan III
(1877-1957) Hereditary ruler of the Muslim Ismaili sect
and general Muslim leader. Born into great power and wealth, the
Aga Khan supported the British in India, and founded the All-India
Muslim League in 1906.
Prime Minister of England during World War II, and
an obdurate foe of Indian independence
Gandhi's father, and a local politician. When Gandhi's
family sent him to England after Karamchand's death, it was with
the hope that he would follow in his father's footsteps.
Nathuram Vinayuk Godse
A militant Hindu nationalist, and Gandhi's assassin
great Indian politician at the turn of the century, who befriended
Muhammed Ali Jinnah
Head of the Muslim League, and founder of Pakistan.
He successfully demanded partition of India into Muslim and Hindu
countries, an idea to which Gandhi was fundamentally opposed.
Gandhi's wife. They were married at the age of thirteen.
The last Viceroy of India, he presided over the partition
of the subcontinent.
An Indian nationalist leader and friend to Gandhi,
he became the first Prime Minister of India.
A leader in the Indian National Congress and Gandhi's
ally, he was the father of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Gandhi's mother. She died while he was in England.
Jain friend of Gandhi's, with whom he corresponded on matters of
religion in the 1890s
Afrikaner President of the Transvaal, and Gandhi's opponent in his
struggle against discrimination
Russian author whose works on pacifism had a profound effect on
· An Indian word for a religiously-oriented, communal
· One of the sacred texts of Hinduism, this long poem
helped shape Gandhi's personal philosophy.
· Descendants of the Dutch settlers of South Africa,
they struggled with the British for dominance of the region.
· The great port of western India
· The renunciation of sex by a male Hindu. Gandhi committed himself
to Brahmacharya, after some struggle, in 1906.
British Empire -
· The vast collection of British-ruled territories that
included, at Gandhi's birth, all of India.
· A caste is a social level or class. In Hindu India,
the caste system is especially intricate and influential; under
this system, a person is born into a specific caste and may never
leave it. The castes span a wide range, the highest being the
Brahmin caste, the lowest being the untouchables.
· The capital of India under the Raj
East India Company -
· The British trading company that dominated India in
the 18th century.
· In Indian tradition, this is a day of fasting, prayer,
and abstention from work.
· The complex, polytheistic majority religion of India
Indian National Congress -
· An organization of well-educated Indians, founded in
1885, that fell under Gandhi's leadership and pushed for Indian independence
· A reform movement in Hinduism that emphasized the sacredness of
all life, and greatly influenced Gandhi.
· A word meaning "great soul" that was applied to Gandhi
· A member of the monotheistic religion Islam. Muslims
have long been the largest religious minority in India.
· A province of British-ruled South Africa
Natal Indian Congress -
· Founded by Gandhi, this organization lobbied for Indian
rights in South Africa.
Phoenix Settlement -
· Gandhi's communal farm in South Africa
· The British term for their dominions in India
· Literally, "soul-force." It was the term given to
Gandhi's strategy of nonviolent resistance to oppression
Satyagraha ashram -
· The name given to Gandhi's ashram in
· A Boer republic in South Africa, ruled by the British
after the Boer War
Unto This Last -
· Written by a British author named John Ruskin, this
book convinced Gandhi of the virtues of physical labor.
· The shunned lowest caste, they were embraced by Gandhi.
Viceroy of India -
· The British-appointed ruler of India
Amritsar Massacre -
· The 1919 slaughter of Indian protesters by British
troops that sparked outrage around the world
Boer War -
· The struggle (1899-1901) between Britain and the Boer republics,
ending in British control of South Africa.
Government of India Act -
· Passed by the British Parliament in 1935, it paved
the way for Indian independence.
Rowlatt Act -
· Passed after World War I, it cracked down on civil
liberties in India, and led Gandhi toward rebellion.
The Salt March -
· Gandhi's march to the sea, in spring 1930, to protest
the British government's salt monopoly.