Important People, Terms, and Events
October 2, 1869:
·Birth of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
·Gandhi and Kasturbai are married.
·Death of Karamchand Gandhi, Gandhi's father
September 4, 1888:
·Gandhi leaves for England to study law.
June 10, 1891:
·Gandhi passes the bar exam in England.
·Gandhi fails as a lawyer in India.
·Gandhi accepts commission to spend a year in South
Africa advising on a lawsuit.
·Gandhi elects to stay on South Africa, and founds
the Natal Indian Congress.
·Gandhi returns to India to collect his wife and children.
·Gandhi returns to South Africa with his family.
·Outbreak of Boer War (1899-1901) in South Africa.
Gandhi organizes an ambulance corps for the British.
·Gandhi returns to India to attend the Indian National
Congress. G.K. Gokhale introduces him to nationalist leaders.
·Gandhi struggles toward Brahmacharya,
or celibacy, finally ending his sexual activity in 1906.
·Nationalists found the magazine the Indian
Opinion, and soon print it on Gandhi's farm, the "Phoenix
July 31, 1907:
·The Boer Republic Transvaal, now under the control
of the British, attempts to register all Indians as members; Gandhi
and others refuse to register. Their resistance efforts mark the
first use of nonviolent non-cooperation by the Indian minority in South
Africa, soon calledsatyagraha, or "soul-force."
January 11, 1908:
·Gandhi is arrested and sentenced to two months in
October 10, 1908:
·Gandhi is arrested again, spends a month in jail.
·Gandhi travels to London, pushing for rights of South
African Indians. The Transvaal registration law is repealed.
November 13, 1913:
·Indians in Natal and Transvaal, under Gandhi's leadership, march
peacefully in protest of a racist poll tax and marriage laws. The
marches continue through the winter.
June 30, 1914:
·Gandhi and Smuts, the Prime Minister of the Transvaal,
reach an agreement, ending the protests.
July 18, 1914:
·Gandhi sails to England.
·Gandhi arrives in England, just at the outbreak of World War I
January 9, 1915:
·Gandhi returns home to India, and receives a hero's
May 25, 1915:
·Gandhi and his followers found Satyagraha
ashram, the religiously-oriented communal farm where Gandhi,
his family, and his followers will live.
April 6, 1919:
·Nationalists hold a hartal, or day
of fasting and prayer, in protest of the Rowlatt Act, which drastically
curtails civil liberties in India.
April 13, 1919:
·Amritsar Massacre; Under General Dyer, British troops slaughter
August 1, 1920:
·Gandhi calls for a period of non-cooperation across
March 10, 1922:
·Gandhi is arrested for sedition.
March 1922-January 1924:
·Gandhi remains in prison.
·Gandhi avoids politics, focusing his writings on the improvement
·Despite his long absence from politics, Gandhi becomes President
of the Indian National Congress.
·Residents in the district of Bardoli protest high
rents using methods of non-cooperation inspired by Gandhi.
January 26, 1930:
·Gandhi publishes the Declaration of Independence of
March 2, 1931:
·Gandhi warns the Viceroy of his intention to break
the Salt Laws.
March 12-April 6, 1931:
·Gandhi leads his Salt March to the sea.
May 5, 1931:
·Gandhi is arrested for violating the Salt Laws; non-cooperation movements
break out across India.
·British government yields to protests, releases all
prisoners, invites a Congress representative to Britain for a Round
Table Conference (the Congress asks Gandhi to be this representative).
·Gandhi participates in the Round Table Conference
December 28, 1931:
·Gandhi returns to India.
January 4, 1932:
·Gandhi is arrested for sedition, and held without
September 20-25, 1932:
·Gandhi fasts in prison to protest the treatment of
·Gandhi avoids politics, travels in rural India.
·Government of India Act passes British Parliament
and is implemented in India; it is the first movement toward independence.
begins, lasting until 1945.
March 22, 1942:
·Sir Stafford Cripps arrives in India, presenting to
the Indian National Congress a proposal for Dominion status (autonomy within
the British Commonwealth) after the War.
August 8, 1942:
·The Indian National Congress rejects the Cripps proposal,
and declares it will grant its support for the British war effort
only in return for independence.
·Congress leaders are arrested; Gandhi is imprisoned
in the Aga Khan's palace.
February 10 to March 2, 1943:
·Gandhi fasts while imprisoned, to protest British
February 22, 1944:
·Death of Kasturbai
May 6, 1944:
·Gandhi is released from the Aga Khan's palace.
·Gandhi visits Muhammed Ali Jinnah in Bombay, but is
unable to work out an agreement that will keep India whole.
May 16, 1946:
·British Cabinet Mission publishes proposal for an
Indian state, without partition; Jinnah and the Muslim League reject
·Lord Mountbatten arrives in India and hammers out
agreement for independence and partition.
August 15, 1947:
·Indian independence becomes official, as does the
partition into two countries, India and Pakistan.
·India dissolves into chaos and killings, as Hindus
and Muslims flee for the borders of India and Pakistan.
January 30, 1948:
·Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Vinayuk Godse,
a Hindu nationalist.