Coinage Act - · An 1834 bill Jackson signs as part of his push to make
gold and silver the dominant specie in America. It made a small
reduction in the value of silver relative to gold to encourage
citizens to turn in their gold to the Mint. However, the bill actually
resulted in the disappearance of much of the remaining silver in
Creeks - · A large Native American tribe primarily in Georgia
and Alabama. Jackson defeated the tribe during his first military camp
in 1814 at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and imposed on them the
Treaty of Fort Jackson.
The Corrupt Bargain - · In the spring of 1825, Jackson accused Speaker of the
House Henry Clay of making a "corrupt bargain" with John Quincy Adams,
where Clay would be appointed secretary of state under Adams if
Clay would throw his support behind Adams in the disputed election
Party - · One of the first political parties founded in America
and headed by Jackson. Served as the main rival to the National
The Hermitage - · Jackson's plantation in Tennessee. He bought it in
1804 and later made it the military headquarters of the second
district when we served as major general. It burned in 1834, but
the plantation had been fully rebuilt by the time Jackson retired
there in 1837.
Indian Removal - · Jackson's policy of attempting to remove all Indian
tribes to areas west of the Mississippi, where they could live
forever in safety. He arranged treaties under which the Indians
would trade their land east of the Mississippi and move west under
the "protection" of federal troops. In reality, this policy caused
the deaths of thousands of Indians, and still later, as America continued
to expand westward, the Indians were confined to reservations or
Internal Improvements - · A controversial issue early in U.S. history, where
the federal government was unsure of whether it could legally spend
money to construct roads, bridges, canals, etc. within a given
state. Jackson generally believed it could not. A faction of the government
that believed it could eventually developed into the National Republican
Maysville Road Bill - · Jackson vetoed a bill to build a new road in the home
state of Henry Clay, partly because of his dislike of internal improvements
and partly because he refused to help his opponent Clay.
Nashville - · The fledgling capital of Tennessee, where Jackson lived
for several years. He served as a delegate from the surrounding Davidson
County to the state constitutional convention National Republican
party: In addition to the Democratic Party led by Jackson, one
of the first political parties in America. An outgrowth of the
internal improvements party and headed by Henry Clay, it served
as the Democrats main rival.
National Republican Party - · A rival party to Jackson's Democratic Party, the National Republican
Party is most closely associated with Henry Clay.
Ordinance of Nullification - · A bill passed by a special session of the South Carolina
legislature in 1832, declaring the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff
of 1832 null and void within the state, leading to the Nullification
Second Bank of the United States - · A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 for a
twenty-year period. By the time Jackson became President it handled
seventy million dollars a year and controlled about one-fifth of
all of the loans in the country. Jackson swore to the kill the
bank, then led by Nicholas Biddle.
The Seminoles - · A tribe of Indians in Florida whom Jackson fought against
in 1817 and 1818. Later, when he was President, his administration
spent more than fifteen million dollars fighting a war against
the Indians and trying to throw them out of the state.
Tariff of 1828 - · A protective tax levied by Jackson supporters and meant
to curry favor with Northern industry leaders. Southerners saw
the tax as an unfair subsidy for Northern manufacturing.
Tariff of 1832 - · An attempt by Jackson and Congress to remedy the unevenness of
the Tariff of 1828. It would eventually lead to the Nullification
Treaty of Fort Jackson - · A punitive treaty Jackson imposed on the Creek Indians
in 1814 after defeating the tribe in a series of battles. It stripped
the tribe of much of its land and rights.
Waxhaws - · Small backwoods area on the North Carolina and South Carolina
border where Jackson grew up.
Whig Party - · The third major party in the U.S., after the Democratic
party and the National Republican party, the Whigs were an amalgamation
of Jackson opponents: Nullifiers, states righters, and men like
John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay.
John Quincy Adams
- Narrowly beat Jackson for the Presidency in 1824
in a run-off vote in the House of Representatives, a leader in
the National Republican Party. Elected to the House by Massachusetts
in 1830 following his reelection loss to Jackson after the grueling
and nasty campaign of 1828.
Thomas Hart Benton
- Democratic U.S. Senator from Missouri, who often
led Jackson's party in Congress, especially the attack on the Second
Bank of the United States
- The leader of one of the two political parties in Jackson's
Tennessee, and Jackson's mentor through his early days of politics.
The Blount party helped Jackson get elected to the House, the Senate
and eventually the Presidency.
- The director of the Second Bank of the United States
during Jackson's Presidency.
Martin Van Buren
- Jackson's closest ally and confident through his Presidency,
and eventual Vice President during Jackson's second term. Van Buren's
bid to be minister to Britain was voted down as part of the Nullification Crisis.
Jackson later endorsed him for President in 1836 and Van Buren
John C. Calhoun
- Jackson's Vice President for his first term. Calhoun
had been added to the ticket to form a coalition that could defeat
John Quincy Adams. Calhoun later led the fight in his home state
to nullify "unfair" tariffs, in what came to be known as the Nullification
Crisis. Calhoun also broke the tie vote against the appointment
of Martin Van Buren as minister to Britain.
main opponent in the Senate throughout his Presidency, ran for
President against Jackson in 1824 (finishing last behind Jackson,
John Quincy Adams and William H. Crawford) and again in 1832, losing
William H. Crawford
- The third runner-up in the disputed election of 1824.
- Jackson's mother; she died during the Revolutionary
War from cholera while tending to American prisoners.
- Jackson's oldest brother, who died of heat exhaustion
following the Battle of Stono Ferry in South Carolina during the
- Jackson's other brother, who died of infections and
small pox received while he and Andrew Jackson were British prisoners
Rachel Donelson Robards
- Jackson's wife. His marriage to her while she was
still technically married to her first husband caused Jackson numerous
scandals through his political career.
- nickname given to Jackson by his troops because he
was "as strong as hickory."
- A war hero and the leader of the main Tennessee opposition
party to Jackson's William Blount party. Jackson eventually defeated
him to be major general of the state militia.
nominee to be secretary of the treasury (which failed due to the
debate over the Second Bank of the United States. Jackson later
appointed him chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend - The battle in which Jackson defeated the Creek Indians.
Battle of New Orleans - Jackson became a national hero after defeating the British
at New Orleans during the War of 1812–albeit several days after the
signing of a peace treaty in Europe. The battle was one of the most
lopsided victories in American history, where the British lost
over two thousand men and the Americans only a handful.
Nullification Crisis - The biggest crisis of Jackson's Presidency, started by
South Carolina opposition to the tariffs leveled in 1828 and 1832
by Jackson supporters. "Nullifiers" thought that a state could nullify
a federal law within its own borders if it so desired. When South
Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, announced its intention to nullify
the tariffs in the fall of 1832, it touched off what almost developed
into a civil war, as Jackson massed military resources on the state's
borders. Finally resolved in the spring of 1833 when South Carolina
agreed to a new fairer tariff passed by Congress.
Panic of 1819 - Four years of economic depression blamed on actions of
the Second Bank of the United States.