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Max Planck

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1. Maxwell Planck's ancestors were mainly of what profession?

2. In which area of physics did Planck specialize in the earliest days of his career?

3. Which physicist first introduced the concept of blackbody radiation?

4. Before 1900, most scientists assumed that light was what?

5. What was the equation that made Planck famous?

6. In what year did Planck's first wife die?

7. What was the name of Planck's second wife?

8. What year was Planck awarded the Nobel Prize?

9. What is the name given to the philosophy that scientists should only trust facts that they gain from their own direct experience with the world?

10. How did Planck react to the beginning of World War I?

11. What is the common name given to the manifesto signed by Planck and many of his peers at the start of World War I?

12. How many of Planck's children died soon after World War I?

13. How did Planck's first son die?

14. What was the name of the treaty that ended World War I?

15. What was the name of the Post-World War I German regime?

16. What was the name of the post-war international scientific organization that excluded German scientists?

17. Which conference did Planck attend in 1927, as a symbol of renewed relations between Germany and the rest of Europe?

18. Planck is known as the father of which field of physics?

19. According to the quantum physicists at Copenhagen and the University of Göttingen, what does Schrödinger's wave measure?

20. Which two physicists were most responsible for creating the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics?

21. According to the theory of complementarity, is light a particle or a wave?

22. According to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, what two quantities of a subatomic particle can never be measured simultaneously?

23. What was Planck's opinion of the Copenhagen interpretation?

24. Who developed the theory of complementarity?

25. Which famous physicist agreed with Planck's strong opinion of the Copenhagen interpretation?

26. Why did Planck support quantum physics research so strongly in the 1920s and 1930s.

27. In what year did the Nazi party come to power in Germany?

28. What political party did Planck belong to after World War I?

29. Which of the following best describes Planck's political views?

30. What is anti-Semitism?

31. Who was the leader of the Nazi party?

32. What did the Law to Restore the Career Civil Service dictate?

33. How many German professors were fired as a result of the Law to Restore the Career Civil Service?

34. According to at least one prominent American observer, how did the German people react to this wave of firings?

35. Which area of science was hardest hit by German anti-Semitism?

36. What percentage of German theoretical physicists left their jobs soon after the Nazis came to power?

37. What did Planck think of this mass exodus of German Jewish professors?

38. Who was the leader of the "German Physics" movement that tried to create a new, purely Aryan physics?

39. According to the German Physics movement, which physicist was considered primarily responsible for the so-called international Jewish conspiracy to destroy German science?

40. How many German physicists followed the German Physics movement?

41. Why did Planck stay in Germany after the Nazis came to power?

42. What did Einstein do after the Nazis came to power?

43. What connection did Planck have to Einstein at the beginning of the twentieth century?

44. In what year was the Berlin Academy of Sciences finally forced to expel its Jewish members?

45. In what year did Planck retire from all his positions in state-funded scientific institutions?

46. How was Planck's home destroyed?

47. What happened to Planck's son in 1945?

48. How did Planck spend his time once he retired from his academic and administrative positions?

49. When did Planck die?

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