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Ideal Gases

Terms and Formulae

The Ideal Gas Law

Boyle's Law and the Manometer

Terms
Absolute temperature  -  A temperature scale whose lowest possible value is zero. Absolute temperature is measured in Kelvin.
Absolute zero  -  A temperature where T = 0K . The theoretical lowest possible temperature.
Avogadro's law  -  Avogadro's law relates the amount and volume of a gas at constant temperature and pressure. Mathematically:

fracVn = k    

k is a constant unique to the temperature and pressure.
Avogadro's number  -  N A = 6.022×1023 . An avogadro's number of molecules equals one mole.
Boyle's law  -  A gas law relating pressure and volume for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature. Mathematically:

PV = C    

C is a constant unique to the amount of gas and temperature.
Charles' law  -  A gas law relating volume and temperature for a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure. Mathematically:

= k    

k is a constant unique to the amount of gas and pressure. Note that T must be an absolute temperature(in Kelvins).
Dalton's law  -  The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures each constituent gas would exert alone. Mathematically:

P tot = P A + P B + P C + ƒƒƒ    

Gas constant  -  Constant R in the ideal gas law. The value of R varies with the units of P , V , n , and T . The value of R can be deduced from the following table:
Units Value of R

   

0.08206

   

8.314

   

8.314

   

1.987

   

62.36
Ideal gas law  -  A gas law stating that PV = nRT . The two main assumptions of the law are that the molecules of an ideal gas do not have volume and do not interact with each other. The ideal gas law is a good approximation when the pressure is low and the temperature is high.
Isothermal conditions  -  Two or more conditions that share the same temperature. In other words, T is constant.
Kelvin  -  A unit of absolute temperature. Abbreviated with the letter "K." The Kelvin scale is related to the Celsius scale by T K = T C + 273.15 . Kelvin should be used for all classical and ideal gas law calculations.
Manometer  -  A device used to measure the difference in pressure between two gases:
"A" and "B" represent the atmosphere, a vacuum, or a pressurized gas.
Molar mass  -  The mass of one mole of particles. Commonly expressed as g/mol.
Mole  -  One mole contains Avogadro's number ( 6.022×1023 ) of particles. For example, one mole of H 2 would contain 6.022×1023 H 2 molecules. Moles are abbreviated as "mol."
Mole fraction  -  In a mixture of gases, the ratio that relates the number of moles of a constituent gas to the total number of moles in the mixture. Derived using the mole fraction formula.
Partial pressure  -  In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by one constituent gas. The sum of the partial pressures of gases in a mixture is equal to the total pressure of the mixture.
Standard atmospheric temperature and pressure  -  Conditions where T = 298K and P = 1bar .
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)  -  Conditions where T = 273K and P = 1atm .
Formulae
 
Boyle's law formula

PV = C    

C is a constant unique to the amount of gas and temperature.
 
Charles' law formula

= k    

k is a constant unique to the amount of gas and pressure. Note that T must be an absolute temperature.
 
Dalton's law formula

P tot = P A + P B + P C + ƒƒƒ    

 
Gas density formula

d = =    

 
Ideal gas law formula PV = nRT
 
Kelvin âÜî Celsius conversion T K = T C + 273.15
 
Mole fraction formula

= = X    

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