Terms
Absolute temperature

A temperature scale whose lowest possible value is zero. Absolute
temperature is measured in Kelvin.
Absolute zero

A temperature where
T = 0K
. The theoretical lowest possible
temperature.
Avogadro's law

Avogadro's law relates the amount and volume of a gas at constant
temperature and pressure. Mathematically:
k
is a constant unique to the temperature and pressure.
Avogadro's number

N
_{A} = 6.022×10^{2}3
. An avogadro's number of molecules equals
one mole.
Boyle's law

A gas law relating pressure and volume for a fixed amount of gas at a
constant temperature. Mathematically:
C
is a constant unique to the amount of gas and temperature.
Charles' law

A gas law relating volume and temperature for a fixed amount of gas at
constant pressure. Mathematically:
= k


k
is a constant unique to the amount of gas and pressure. Note that
T
must be an absolute temperature(in Kelvins).
Dalton's law

The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures
each constituent gas would exert alone. Mathematically:
P
_{tot} = P
_{A} + P
_{B} + P
_{C} + ƒƒƒ


Gas constant

Constant
R
in the ideal gas law. The value of
R
varies
with the units of
P
,
V
,
n
, and
T
. The value of
R
can be
deduced from the following table:
Units

Value of R


0.08206 

8.314 

8.314 

1.987 

62.36 
Ideal gas law

A gas law stating that
PV = nRT
. The two main assumptions of the
law are that the molecules of an ideal gas do not have volume and do
not interact with each other. The ideal gas law is a good
approximation when the pressure is low and the temperature is high.
Isothermal conditions

Two or more conditions that share the same temperature. In other
words,
T
is constant.
Kelvin

A unit of absolute temperature. Abbreviated with the letter "K."
The Kelvin scale is related to the Celsius scale by
T
_{K} = T
_{C} + 273.15
. Kelvin should be used for all classical and ideal gas
law calculations.
Manometer

A device used to measure the difference in pressure between two gases:
"A" and "B" represent the atmosphere, a vacuum, or a pressurized gas.
Molar mass

The mass of one mole of particles. Commonly expressed as g/mol.
Mole

One mole contains Avogadro's number (
6.022×10^{2}3
) of
particles. For example, one mole of
H
_{2}
would contain
6.022×10^{2}3
H
_{2}
molecules. Moles are
abbreviated as "mol."
Mole fraction

In a mixture of gases, the ratio that relates the number of moles
of a constituent gas to the total number of moles in the mixture.
Derived using the mole fraction formula.
Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, the pressure exerted by one constituent gas.
The sum of the partial pressures of gases in a mixture is equal to the
total pressure of the mixture.
Standard atmospheric temperature and pressure

Conditions where
T = 298K
and
P = 1bar
.
Standard temperature and pressure (STP)

Conditions where
T = 273K
and
P = 1atm
.
Formulae
Boyle's law formula

C
is a constant unique to the amount of gas and temperature.

Charles' law formula

= k


k
is a constant unique to the amount of gas and pressure. Note that
T
must be an absolute temperature.

Dalton's law formula

P
_{tot} = P
_{A} + P
_{B} + P
_{C} + ƒƒƒ



Gas density formula

d = =



Ideal gas law formula

PV = nRT

Kelvin
âÜî
Celsius conversion

T
_{K} = T
_{C} + 273.15

Mole fraction formula

= = X


