Anderson, Charles R. Ernest Hemingway: Critiques of Four Major Novels. Ed. Carlos Baker. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1962.
Benson, Jackson J. “Roles and the Masculine Writer.” In Brett Ashley, edited by Harold Bloom, 76–85. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1991.
Burgess, Anthony. Ernest Hemingway and His World. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978.
Farrell, James T. “The Sun Also Rises.” In Ernest Hemingway: The Man and His Work, edited by John K. M. McCaffery, 221–225. New York: The World Publishing Company, 1950.
Goodman, Paul. Ernest Hemingway: Five Decades of Criticism. Ed. Linda Welshimer Wagner. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1974.
Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingway and the Pursuit of Heroism. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1968.
Vance, William L. “Implications of Form in The Sun Also Rises.” In The Twenties: Poetry and Prose: Twenty Critical Essays, edited by Richard E. Langford and William E. Taylor, 87–91. Florida: Everett Edwords Press, 1966.
Voss, Arthur. The American Short Story: A Critical Survey. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1973.
Waldhorn, Arthur. A Reader’s Guide to Ernest Hemingway. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1972.
I believe that the raised baton also refers to the fact that Jake is impotent and he and Brett will never have the relationship that they both desire.
38 out of 50 people found this helpful
Ernest Hemingway stated, concerning this book, that “‘The Sun Also Rises’ is a damn tragedy with the earth abiding as hero forever”. Unfortunately, we have not really understood how he explained this in his writings because we have not understood the character of Brett- what she symbolizes- in this novel. Brett is not to be seen as a separate, individual character in her own right but rather she symbolizes an element within another character. We can only understand the true significance of Hemingway’s declaration if we begin to see... Read more→
31 out of 35 people found this helpful