of Syracuse (317–310 B.C.
) who conquered
all of Sicily except for territory dominated by Carthage; he was
eventually defeated by the Carthaginian army.
the Great, king of Macedonia (336–323 B.C.
He conquered Greece, Persia, and much of Asia.
pope in 1492. Challenged by French invasion
of Italy and a war between France and Spain. Father of Cesare Borgia.
- Troops borrowed from other nations to fight for a
prince. Organized and effective in battle, they nonetheless have
loyalties to their home state.
called Duke Valentino (1476–1507). Cesare Borgia
was made duke of Romagna by his father, Pope Alexander VI, in 1501.
He lost power after the death of the pope. Cesare Borgia is Machiavelli’s
primary example of a prince who has great prowess, as displayed
by his efforts to secure his state quickly after he was put in power.
- A principality that is either newly created or annexed
from another power. These principalities can differ in their culture,
language, and attitudes in relation to the prince, since he is an
unfamiliar ruler. These principalities pose the most difficulties.
of the Persian Empire.
- A principality technically under the rulership of
a prince, but nonetheless strongly dominated by the Church.
- A principality ruled by a prince whose family has
controlled the principality for several generations. Hereditary
principalities, according to Machiavelli, are generally easy to
rule and maintain.
as pope 1503–1513. Julius II strengthened
the power of the Church through vigorous leadership and intelligent
diplomacy. He defeated Roman barons and negotiated an alliance against
pope in 1513. Leo X was an advocate of the Medici
- Troops that are paid to perform a service for the prince.
Because they have no loyalty to the prince, and money is their only
inducement to fight, they are unreliable as a means of defense.
They will be unwilling to die in battle and therefore will not fight
term to describe the native army of a principality, consisting of
countrymen and commanded either by a prince himself or a confidant.
localized territory or region ruled by a prince (or princess), from
which the term is derived. A prince may rule more than one principality.
All principalities can be grouped under the general category of
“state.” A principality is ruled autocratically and is therefore distinguished
from a republic, the only other type of state. For the most part,
the advice found in The Prince
is geared toward
principalities, although the book does reference republics in some
ability to conquer and govern. Machiavelli uses this term as the
opposite of “fortune.”
state not ruled by a monarch or prince but headed by elected officials
accountable to a larger citizenry. Machiavelli distinguishes a republic
from a principality, which the bulk of The Prince
as its subject.
and first king of Rome.
- Roman emperor (a.d. 193–211
of Attica, king of Athens. According to legend, he killed the Minotaur
in the Cretan labyrinth.