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———. Purgatorio. Trans. John Ciardi. New York: New American Library, 1987.
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Bloom, Harold, ed. Dante’s The Divine Comedy: Modern Critical Interpretations. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987.
Chiarenza, Marguerite. The Divine Comedy: Tracing God’s Art. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1989.
Himmelfarb, Martha. Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.
Tierney, Brian, ed. The Crisis of the Church & State: 1050–1300. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1964.
in Christian and Jewish tradition, Satan was an angel who betrayed his benefactor (God). i think that this makes fraud rather suitable as the 9th circle and also explains his bat wings.
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In the 3rd circle of Dante's Inferno, the Gluttonous are torn apart(eaten) by Cerberus the three-headed dog. Flatters are found in the 8th circle and they are who is plunged in excrement. They were full of it in life so they are full of it in death.
The full title is actually. Dante Alighieri, Florentine by Citizenship, Not by Morals
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