A group including such luminaries as William James and Mark Twain that argued
against to combat American imperialism. Disliked the American annexation of
Coaling Stations were necessary in the late 19th century so that steamships that
burned coal could refuel en route. A worldwide navy (that could protect
worldwide trade interests) required worldwide coaling stations. The need for
coaling stations was one of the reasons the US annexed several islands during
and after the Spanish American War, especially Hawaii, Guam, and the
1900 Act providing a civil government for Puerto Rico; a main goal of the act
was to prepare Puerto Rico for free trade with the US. It gave most power in
Puerto Rico to US-appointed officials.
A series of Supreme Court cases in 1901, in which the Court ruled that the
Constitution and American laws did not all necessarily apply to colonies.
Instead, Congress would decide which laws applied where, allowing the US to keep
citizenship out of the grasp of the inhabitants of its new territories.
Cuban Nationalists who fought against Spain's colonial regime in Cuba.
An attitude of wildly enthusiastic, often excessive nationalism. Often,
jingoists or jingoes push for war with other countries.
1901 amendment to the Cuban constitution by which the US was allowed certain
concessions, including the right to indefinitely maintain Guantanamo naval base
A group of cavalry volunteers in the US Army who fought in the Spanish-American
War. Although termed the Rough Riders, most of their horses did not arrive in
Cuba, and the Rough Riders actually walked. The group was led by Colonel
Leonard Wood, with Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Roosevelt also leading a
contingent. The Rough Riders made a heroic charge up San Juan Hill that
cost them heavy casualties.
A resolution by Congress in 1898 promising to grant Cuba independence after the war. The Teller Amendment provided the US with justification for its actions
while allaying fears that the war was simply an imperialist land grab.
American warship sent to patrol Cuban waters at the beginning of 1898. When the
ship mysteriously exploded on February 15, 1898, it gave the US a final reason
to go to war, even though the cause of the explosion is still debated today.
This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff
led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of
Cuban natives against colonial Spain.
The type of sensationalist (sometimes fictitious) journalism practiced by
newspapermen such as Hearst and Pulitzer in order to boost circulation.
Partially of Chinese descent, Aguinaldo was the Philippines' revolutionary
leader, first against the Spanish and then, after the end of the Spanish-
American War, against the Americans.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic presidential candidate of 1896 and 1900, against McKinley. Bryan,
a gifted orator, was famous for his "Cross of Gold" speech advocating Free
Silver. Over the course of his career he ran for President, and lost, four
times. He also argued the Scopes Monkey Trial against Clarence Darrow, as
immortalized in the play Inherit the Wind.
Navy Commodore who commanded the US surprise attack on the Spanish fleet at the
Battle of Manila.
William R. Hearst
Newspaper publisher and leading example of yellow journalism. His New
York Journal started a public hysteria for war with Spain by publishing
incendiary articles and illustrations by Remington. Hearst once said to
Remington, "You provide the pictures and I'll provide the war."
Dupuy du Lome
Spanish minister in Washington, whose letter insulting President McKinley
was intercepted and published in Hearst's papers. He resigned after the
John D. Long
Secretary of the Navy under McKinley's administration, beginning in 1896.
Alfred T. Mahan
American naval officer who published The Influence of Sea Power Upon
History in 1890. His views, advocating the importance of a strong Navy and
a worldwide network of coaling stations to protect trading routes, held
great influence on military thought in both the US and Europe around the time of
the Spanish-American War (1898).
US President from 1896 to his assassination in 1901. Backed by Mark Hanna and
American business interests, McKinley championed high, business-protecting
tariffs and opposed Free Silver. Under McKinley, the US engaged in a period of
imperialism, epitomized by the Spanish-American War.
Competitor against Hearst in circulation war, and practitioner of yellow
US Army bacteriologist and pathologist sent to Cuba. He was the first to link
yellow fever to mosquito bites, helping to eliminate the disease.
Painter and illustrator working for Hearst who went to Cuba during the
Spanish-American War. One of Remington's famous works is a painting of the
Rough Riders charging up San Juan Hill. His paintings and illustrations
are known for their immediate, reporter-like quality.
26th President of the United States, elected in 1901 and re-elected in 1905.
During the Spanish-American War, he first served as Assistant Secretary of the
Navy and then quit to join the Rough Riders. Born a weakling, the near-
sighted Roosevelt built himself into robust shape by a lifelong program of
exercise and vigorous activities. Always seeking to expand American power in
international affairs, Roosevelt was a prominent hawk who gave Dewey the
order to attack at the Battle of Manila.
William R. Shafter
General who led the US Army ground invasion of Cuba. Survivor of the Civil
War, Shafter was so fat and his gout was so bad
that he was carried around by his men on a door.
General "Butcher" Weyler
Spanish General sent to Cuba in 1896 to put down the insurrectos' rebellion.
Called the "Butcher", Weyler put much of the Cuban population into unsanitary
concentration camps. He was recalled to Spain in 1897.
Colonel, and commander of the volunteer Rough Riders. Wood remained in Cuba
as the governor during the brief US occupation following the war. As governor,
Wood oversaw the improvement of sanitation, the building of schools and roads,
and the deepening of Havana harbor.
Battle of Manila
On May 1, 1898, Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet at Manila in a surprise
attack in which not a single American was killed. The Spanish ships were old and
rotting, and were defeated easily by the newer American steel ships.
San Juan Hill
On July 1, 1898, the Rough Riders, supported by two black regiments, charged
this hill. Although the Rough Riders took heavy casualties, the public saw the
charge as a success.
Treaty of Paris
Signed on December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-
American War. According to the Treaty, Cuba went free, Guam, Puerto Rico, and
the Philippines were ceded to the US, and the US agreed to pay Spain an
indemnity of $20 million.