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The Old Man and the Sea

Ernest Hemingway


Suggestions for Further Reading

Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972.

Brenner, Gerry. The Old Man and the Sea: Story of a Common Man. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991.

Hurley, C. Harold, ed. Hemingway’s Debt to Baseball in The Old Man and the Sea: A Collection of Critical Readings. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen Press, 1992.

———. “Just ‘a Boy’ or ‘Already a Man’?: Manolin’s Age in The Old Man and the Sea,The Hemingway Review 10, no. 2. 95–101.

Jobes, Katharine T., comp. Twentieth-Century Interpretations of The Old Man and the Sea: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1968.

Morton, Bruce. “Santiago’s Apprenticeship: A Source for The Old Man and the Sea,The Hemingway Review 2, no. 2. 52–55.

Reynolds, Michael S. Hemingtway. 5 vols. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998–2000.

Waldmeir, Joseph J. and Frederick J. Svoboda, eds. Hemingway: Up in Michigan Perspectives. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995.

Weeks, Robert P. Hemingway: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1962.

Young, Philip. Ernest Hemingway. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961.

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The Warbler

by TheGunney, August 27, 2014

I believe the Warbler which lands on Santiago's skiff before flying off to meet the Hawks could be considered a minor character. I believe it serves as a symbol or something of the small comforts of life which are fine and enjoyable, but often leave us without warning or reason.


6 out of 7 people found this helpful


by anon_2223126037, November 08, 2014

In reply to The Gunner.

I think you are right, but I think you can also look at the warbler as almost a metaphor for Santiago.When the warbler lands on his line he is very tired and has just completed a long and hard journey and is resting for a bit before going off to meet the predatory hawks. This is much like Santiago's state just after he has caught the Marlin. He is very tired and worn yet has precious little time to rest before he must go and face the predatory sharks.


1 out of 1 people found this helpful

The Warbler

by KamMW, May 13, 2015

I believe that the Warbler is a symbol Hemingway put in the book to represent his mother. In Hemingway's life he kind of pushed his mother away and wouldn't really focus at all on her later in his life. This is because he couldn't stand her criticizing his writing and didn't want her to be around it. Since Santiago represents Hemingway and fishing represents writing in the book I think the Warbler symbolizes Hemingway's mother.

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