full title · The Sun Also Rises
author · Ernest Hemingway
type of work · Novel
genre · Modernist novel; travelogue; novel of disillusionment
language · English
time and place written · Mid-1920s, Paris
date of first publication · 1926
publisher · Charles Scribner’s Sons
narrator · Jake Barnes
point of view · Jake tells the entire story from his own point of view.
tone · Somber, detached, ironic, nostalgic
tense · Past
setting (time) · 1924
setting (place) · The novel begins in Paris, France, moves to Pamplona, Spain, and concludes in Madrid, Spain.
protagonist · Jake
major conflict · Jake is in love with Lady Brett Ashley, but they cannot maintain a relationship because he was rendered impotent by a war wound. Jake loses numerous friendships and has his life repeatedly disrupted because of his loyalty to Brett, who has a destructive series of love affairs with other men.
rising action · Jake, Brett, and their friends pursue a dissipated life in Paris; Jake introduces Brett to Robert Cohn; Brett and Cohn have an affair; Cohn follows Brett to Pamplona.
climax · The jilted Cohn beats up Mike and Jake, and afterward Pedro Romero.
falling action · Jake and his friends leave Spain; Jake enjoys the solitude of San Sebastian; Brett wires Jake to rescue her in Madrid after forcing Romero to leave her.
themes · The aimlessness of the Lost Generation; male insecurity; the destructiveness of sex
motifs · The failure of communication; excessive drinking; false friendships
symbols · Bullfighting
foreshadowing · The behavior of the bulls repeatedly foreshadows the actions of the people in the novel.
I believe that the raised baton also refers to the fact that Jake is impotent and he and Brett will never have the relationship that they both desire.
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Ernest Hemingway stated, concerning this book, that “‘The Sun Also Rises’ is a damn tragedy with the earth abiding as hero forever”. Unfortunately, we have not really understood how he explained this in his writings because we have not understood the character of Brett- what she symbolizes- in this novel. Brett is not to be seen as a separate, individual character in her own right but rather she symbolizes an element within another character. We can only understand the true significance of Hemingway’s declaration if we begin to see... Read more→
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