Problem-solving is the active effort people make to achieve a goal that cannot be easily attained.
Three common categories of problems include inducing structure, arranging, and transformation.
Some problems involve finding relationships between elements.
Example: “Pineapple is to fruit as cabbage is to ___.” In this analogy problem, the answer, “vegetable,” requires people to figure out the relationship between “pineapple” and “fruit” and apply a similar relationship to “cabbage.”
Other problems involve arranging elements in a way that fulfills certain criteria.
Example: The answer to the problem “Arrange the letters in LEPAP to make the name of a fruit” is “APPLE.”