Problem : In which direction does the ribosome move along the mRNA molecule (5' to 3' or 3' to 5')?

Ribosomes move along the mRNA molecule in the 5' to 3' direction.

Problem : How does the 30S subunit know where to bind on the mRNA molecule?

The 30S subunit has a region of complementarity with a sequence on the mRNA molecule called the ribosome binding site. The molecule collides with the mRNA in many places, but only forms a strong bond when it collides at the ribosome binding site.

Problem : What is the name of the class of proteins that help with the association of the initiation complex?

Initiation factors help bring together the various components of the initiation complex.

Problem : During elongation, what type of bond is formed between amino acids in the A and P sites of the ribosome? Between what two elements is this new bond formed?

Peptide bonds are formed between amino acids during elongation. Bonds between a nitrogen and a carbon that is a part of carbonyl are called peptide bonds.

Problem : What are the three stop codons? Why do they signal translation termination?

The three stop codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA. These codons signal translation termination because there is no tRNA molecule that recognizes these codons. Instead, they are recognized by termination factors that stop translation.