Chief of Staff of all Roman forces; there was one in
East and West, or a supreme one when the empire was united.
Agreement between Roman government and tribes on other
side of border to work as auxiliaries in army, in return for payments.
From 390s, began applying to tribes, Goths, etc., migrating to the
Roman side of border, and living in internal territories.
Originally Roman legal measure allowing Roman troops
to be quartered on civilian countryside farms during the winter.
From the 420s, was applied to Barbarian federates allowing them
to access a certain proportion--1/3 to 2/3--of the agricultural produce
of Romans. Allows creeping annexation and basis for Barbarian
Christian heresy from 320s, holding that instead of
a human-divine nature in Christ, the divine, being more powerful,
pushed out and superceded the human in Christ. Blasted as heresy
in the West and later in the East, it was the form of Christianity
first adopted by Goths, Vandals, Alans.
Heresy in Church, dating from 430s. Held that the
human and divine in Christ were inseparable and totally intermingled.
The idea was One Nature in One Person. Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria,
first articulated the belief in opposition to Nestorianism; more
extreme followers were branded heretical.
Corpus Juris Civilis
A codification of Roman law going back to second century, accomplished
under Justinian in mid 500s. Consisted of a digest, a handbook,
and a case law section, was relevant and of guidance to lawyers
for the next millennium.
Military outposts set up by Maurice in 580s in Italy
and Carthage to protect remains of Justinian's conquests.
Regions demarcated first in Anatolia, then in Thrace,
to provide for military defense. Governors were generals with
wide civil-military powers, and their armies were made up of land-granted small-holding
peasants, often Balkan Slav transplants.
Military commander of a Theme and the themes army.
Compromise theology in response to Monophysitism, proposed by
Heraclius through Patriarch Sergius: Christ was of two natures,
and did not have a single energy, but possessed a single will.
All Eastern Patriarchs agreed, but Western Pope John IV condemned
it in 641.
Rains eroded the terrace system of agricultural cultivation
in Italy, Balkans and Thrace in the 550-650 period, as peasants
had fled and did not maintain them. Alluvial deposits were washed into
these areas: youngerfill.
Busta Gallorum (552)
Byzantine final defeat of Goths. Narses led Romans,
and Totila led Goths.
Church council in 451, at which Monophysitism was condemned
again and the idea of Two Natures Coexisting in One Person was
promulgated as official doctrine: the Chalcedonian Definition
Revolt of Blues and Greens in Constantinople against
Justinian in 532. Put down by Belisarius, Narses, and Munda.
Plague afflicting Mediterranean Basin from 542-550,
and then at intervals in next 50 years. Up to 33% mortality rate.
Imperial Sassanian capital in Persia. Sacked by Heraclius.
Battle of the Yarmuk (636)
Islamic armies defeat Byzantine troops in Syria-Jordan.
Battle of Qadisiyya
Islamic armies' defeat Sassanian forces, opening up
Persia, and causing Sassanian downfall.
Battle of Tours
Battle in Poitiers in 732, where Charles Martel stopped
Muslim penetration into France.
Disappearance of last Shi'ite Imam in 980s. Temporary,
his return is messianic.
The Lesser Jihad
Armed Holy War. Greater Jihad is contemplation and
Location of Childeric I's palace by 481.
Battle of Soissons
Clovis' defeat of Syagrius in 486
Battle of Vouille
Clovis' defeat of Arian Visigoths, 507
Term for Frankish lands, encapsulating modern France, Belgium,
Edict of Clothar (614)
Edict in which Clothar committed to only appoint royal
officials from a particular regions local counts.
Mayor of the palace, chief officer of the king's royal
household, will supplant Merovingians in 670s onwards.
Battle of Fontenoy
Louis the Pious' oldest son Lothair was slated to get
most of the realm. In 840 his two younger brothers Charles the
Bald and Louis the German combined to fight him at the Battle of Fontenoy.
Losses were tremendous, yet the results required compromise. Charles
the Bald received western regions from forty miles east of Paris
to the southwestern Marches and stretching from the English Channel
to the Mediterranean. Louis the German received eastern districts
from the Marches beyond the Elbe to just outside Strasbourg, and
from Denmark in the north to the Adriatic in the south. Wedged
in between this was Lothair's kingdom, stretching from the North
Sea all the way past the papal States in Italy, with the Imperial
March lords on Carolingian borders.
Royal agents sent from Charlemagne's palace. A lay
noble and a prelate, they would check on status of royal estates,
and see that counts were in line. They would also convey the king's
Decrees sent out by Charlemagne to regions, meant to
apply to all subjects equally.
In 933, Henry the Fowler refused further payments of
tribute to the Hungarians. When the Hungarians launched a massive punitive
expedition, Henry routed it at Unstrut.
Battle at Lechfeld
Otto I's defeat of the Magyars in 955. They ceased
as a threat after that.
866, a "great army" of Danish Vikings invaded southeastern England,
overrunning East Anglia, Northumbria, and Mercia by 877. They
were stopped only by King Alfred the Great (r. 871-899) of Wessex,
who defeated them at Edington in 878.
Areas in Britain allotted to Vikings.
Viking power began to wane, as German king Arnulf defeated them
at Dyle in the Netherlands in 891.
Royal official in counties in Saxon England. Sherriff.
Elder serving on court in Wessex.
Solitary monastics, mostly in Egypt, Palestine, and
Syria from the 250s.
Council of Whitby
In the 650s-660s, both Irish and Roman missionaries
were converting in England. Given differences in ritual observance, King
Oswy held the Council of Whitby in 664, where the decision was
made to follow the Roman rite.
The sale of church offices to the highest bidder.
Poor quality churchmen resulted
In Burgundy, earnest monastics convinced William the
Pious of Aquitane to found the Cluny monastery around 910. It
was endowed generously from the start, so that it would not be dependent
on secular rulers. Additional gifts of land or provisions would
not be in return for feudal services, but would be recompensed
by the monks' prayers. The monks received the right to elect their
own abbot, putting the position beyond lay interference. Cluny's
founders tried to eliminate any potentially idle time by instituting
heavy schedules of communal liturgical prayer services, in addition
to fieldwork and manuscript reproduction. Cluniac monks attained
a high level of sustainable piety and discipline throughout the
tenth century and into the eleventh.