408-450: Rule of Theodosius II in the East ·Disappaerance of Rome in the West, growing Hun penetration south
451: Council of Chalcedon, Marcian's rule ·Church council declaring Monophysitism to be heresy, Marcian's
rejection of Hun tribute demands.
474-491: Zeno's rule ·Ostrogoths raid Byzantium, then sent west by Zeno;
internal palace intrigues and civil unrest.
476·Odovacar deposes last Roman Emperor, rules in his
488·Theodoric the Ostrogoth arrives in Italy, eliminates
491: Anastasia Emperor in East·Schism with Rome develops due to his Monophysitism; beginning
of Bulgar raids and Blues and Greens unrest.
506: Clovis' conversion·Franks become Catholic, defeat Arain Visigoths at
Battle of Vouille
532: Nika riots ·After capital city insurrection, Emperor Justinian
sends forces to conquer North Africa (533) and Italy (535-52) as
well as southern tip of Spain (550).
542·Plague affecting all urban areas of Mediterranean
568-575·Lombard conquest of Italy
590-604: Pontificate of Gregory the Great·Consolidation of Papal Estates, provision of government
to Rome, truces with Lombards, defenses against Lombards
629-638: ·Catholic missions in England, Dagobert I in Francia;
Heraclius' victory over Sassanians and loss of Middle East to Muslims; Sassanian
loss to Muslims at Qadisiyya
642·Collpase of Sassanian state and its Islamic conquest
656-661: Caliphate of Ali·Civil conflict in Islamic state between Ali and Ummayads founder
663: Whitby Synod·Roman rite as rite for English churches; decision
that it is legitimate to proselytize on the continent for Catholic
674-677·First Muslim siege of Constantinople
687: Battle of Tertry·Pepin II's victory over Neustrian mayor; establishment
of his family's dominance in Francia.
711·Islamic invasion of Iberia
715-720: Second Muslim siege of Constantinople;· Charles Martel's control over Austrasia and Neustria
732: Battle of Tours·Charles Martel defeats Spanish Muslim forces at Poitiers
in southern France
741-751·Joint Pepin-Carloman rule; Aistulf Lombard king in
Italy; transfer of power from Ummayads to Abbasids
756: Ummayad Emirate in Spain·Last living Ummayad family member, Abd al-Rahman,
escapes to Spain, founds state in Cordoba.
768-814: Charlemagne's rule·Conquest of Saxons, setting up of border marches,
conquest of Lombard Italy, imperial coronation, first Viking raids
814-840: Louis the Pious·Internal conflict in Carolingian state, beginnings
of Arab seaborne raids in Mediterranean and conquest of Sicily, increased
830s-950s: ·Viking, Magyar, and Muslim raids
845·Vikings begin wintering at mouth of Loire, Seine
878-886· Viking siege of Paris
911: Charles the Simple's agreement with Rollo;
East Frankish Carolingians extinct ·Charles allows Rollo to legally possess lands at mouth
of Seine, Normans evolve; Conrad of Franconia chosen to replace Frankish
Alfred the Great (r. 871-899) of Wessex·Restricts Vikings to Danelaw, strengthens Wessex Defenses.
912-961·Rule of Abd al-Rahman III in Spain
919-936·Henry the Fowler in Germany, re-annexes Lorriane
Aethelstan (r. 925-939)·Conquers the Danelaw.
Otto I (r. 936-973)·Defeats rebellious counts, defeats Magyars (95), establishes Saxon
control in Italy.
955·Battle of the Lech
960: Hugh Capet as Duke of Franks·Chosen by French counts because they wanted a weak