Muawiya - · First Ummayad Caliph, comes to power by defeating
Ali in 661. Starts naval incursions into Byzantium.
Bulgars - · Pagan people that moved southwest from Caspian are
and began raiding Byzantium from 500s. Created state in 700-800s.
Destroyed by Basil II.
Leo the Isuarian - · Byzantine Theme General who took power in 717 and then fought
off the second Muslim siege. Inaugurated Iconoclasm.
Irene - · Byzantine Empress at end of 9th century. Rejected
Iconoclasm and was financially profligate. Overthrown in 802.
John Tzimisces - · Brilliant Byzantine general, on December 10, 969 murdered Nicephoras
Phocas. Major concerns dealt with his neighbors to the north and
east, such as Sviatoslav of the Russians, who was finally defeated
at Dristra on the Danube, in July 972. In 975, John turned his
full attention to the East, campaigns here would represent the
furthest extent of Byzantine reconquest for all the state's history.
By the fall of that year, most of Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon
were under Byzantine control.
Sviatoslav - · Russian leader and general, led men south of the Danube
in 970s. Imperial forces utterly defeated the Russians at Arcadiopolis.
In 972, John Tzimisces led armies to the old Bulgarian capital
of Preslav and engaged the Russians in a fierce battle. The Russians broke,
and so Preslav was later occupied by Greek forces around Easter
972. Sviatoslav fled and was finally defeated at Dristra on the
Danube, in July 972.
Fatimid - · Shi'i Muslim dynasty emerging from Tunisia to conquer
Egypt in 969. Controlled Palestine during Crusades to 1170s.
Basil II - · Byzantine Emperor, 976-1025. Destroyed Bulgars, held
up eastern defenses. Most glorious ruler of Byzantium after Heraclius.
Vladimir of Rus - · Head of Russian Kiev state. Helped Basil II retain
power early on; married Basil's sister in return for conversion
to Greek Orthodoxy.
Otto I (r. 936-973) - · Saxon emperor of Germany. Defeated Magyars, settled
Papal matters, was crowned emperor. Ruled without feudal relations.
Henry III (r. 1039-1056) - · German Emperor descending into Rome to install mostly
Pope Leo IX (1048-1054) - · Pope installed by Henry III, supported papal autonomy
from secular rulers and was a reforming bishop.
Henry IV (1056-1106)
- · German Emperor during Investiture
. German nobles had gained power during
his long minority, and as emperor he faced a revolt of nobles in
league with the papacy. Eventually put both down, but the effort
weakened the German monarchy.
VII (1073-1085) - · Hildebrand, reforming pope, and chief Church protagonist
in Investiture Controversy. Died as a Norman hostage. Began many
ideas that later emerged in Crusades.
Pope Urban II
(1088-1099) - · Had been a secretary to Gregory VII. Brought Papacy
back to Rome. Was a Cluniac Prior. Articulated Crusader idea, launched
the first one. Established a better central papal bureaucracy.
Alexius Comnenus - · Byzantine Emperor from 1080-1118. Appealed to West
for help post-Manzikert. Reclaimed western Asia Minor lands after
Godfrey of Bouillon - · Crusading leader in First Crusade, became king of Jerusalem
for one year in 1099.
Bohemond - · Norman adventurer-crusader from First Crusade. Became Count
of Antioch in 1098.
Zengi - · Seljukid Amir of Mosul who began Muslim comeback in Crusades.
Took Edessa in 1144.
Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi - · Overthrew Fatimids in Egypt, setting up Ayyubid dynasty
and uniting Egypt and the Fertile Crescent. Defeated crusader armies
at Hattin in 1187 and took Jerusalem back in 1188. Muslim personage
of great chivalry value to western medieval legend.
Seljuks of Rum - · Turkic principality focused on Anatolia. Under nominal suzerainty
of Great Seljuks in Baghdad. Defeated Byzantine forces under
Manuel Comnenus in 1071 and 1176.
(1143-1180) - · Byzantine Emperor, insisted on Crusader states recognizing
his imperial status. Allowed more privileges to westerners in empire.
Was defeated by Seljuks at Myriocephalum in 1176.
Philip I (1060-1108) - · French king, began turning the tide of feudal decomposition
in France by insisting on his crown rights and using all means
to increase his power.
Philip II Augustus - · French king, 1180-1223. Saw to institutional growth
of French monarchy; reined in feudal nobles. Fought Angevins and
beat John of England at Bouvines, bringing much of France back
to crown control. Participated in Third Crusade.
Louis IX - · St. Louis, French king 1226-1270. French monarchy
at strongest relative to nobles. Known for piety, justice. Crusaded
twice, got all Plantagenet lands back except for Gascony.
Ferdinand I of Leon
- · Important Reconquista
Began appointing French monks as Spanish bishops from the 1050s.
These monks were not as impressed with Muslim grandeur as the
Spaniards had been, and the Church reformation gave the Spaniards
a reinvigorated Christian identity, highlighting confessional differences
from the Muslims.
Barbarossa - · German emperor, 1152-1190. Attempted over twenty years
to reassert German control in Italy, over towns and Popes. Extremely
activist, but was unable to control the independent Italian towns.
Died during Third Crusade.
Arnold of Brescia - · Leader of Italian commune in 1050s. Anti-sacerdotal,
called on Church to return to apostolic poverty. Captured and
executed by Barbarossa.
Frederick II - · German Emperor (1215-1250), king of Sicily through
mother. Highly cultured and of eclectic interests, knew Arabic,
more Sicilian than German, espoused feudal laissez faire policies
in Germany but aspired to close central control in Italy. Opposed by
Pope for his Italian interests, and excommunicated when negotiated
return of Jerusalem in 1229 rather than its military liberation.
Fought the resurrected Lombard league, was never able to pacify
Robert Guiscard - · Norman leader in Sicily, agreed to protect Popes.
Alfonso VI of Leon
- · Began serious Reconquista
late eleventh century. Defeated by Almoravids at Sagrajas, 1086.
Louis VII - · Important French king able to build a central bureaucracy
and begin the taming of French nobles.
Almoravids - · Revivalist Muslim dynasty from North Africa. Crossed
over to Spain in 1080s and shored up defenses against Christians
until early 1100s.
Alfonso VIII of Castile (1158-1214)
- · Victor at Las Navas de Tolosa, opened way for thirteenth-century Reconquista