Alfred the Great (r. 871-899) of Wessex·Restricts Vikings to Danelaw, strengthens Wessex Defenses
912-961: ·rule of Abd al-Rahman III in Spain
919-936: ·Henry the Fowler in Germany, reannexes Lorriane
Aethelstan (r. 925-939)·Conquers the Danelaw
Otto I (r. 936-973)·Defeats rebellious counts, defeats Magyars (955), establishes Saxon control in Italy, is crowned Roman Emperor and appoints popes.
955: ·Battle of the Lech
960: Hugh Capet as Duke of Franks·Chosen by French counts specifically because he will be a weak ruler.
976-1025: Basil II, Byzantine Emperor·Fends off attacks to throne, sees to Conversion of Russians, helps peasant status, defeats Bulgar army and destroys Bulgar state.
1054: ·Schism between Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches
1066: Norman Conquest of England·William the Bastard (alternatively known as William the Conqueror) of Normandy invades and conquers England, ending the Anglosaxon period. Defeats Harold Godwinson at Hastings.
1071: Manzikert·Seljuk Turkish forces under Alp Arslan defeat Byzantine forces under Romanus IV Diogenes. Beginning of Turkification of Asia Minor.
1074: Gregory VII as Pope·Beginning of Investiture Controversy between Papacy and German Emperor Henry IV. Gregory's Dictatus Papae. Controversy continues ten years, to 1084.
1086: Battle of Sagrajas·Almoravids, coming from North Africa to Spain, defeat Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile.
1095: Pope Urban II preaches First Crusade at Clermont·Crusade goes from 1096-1099, capturing Jerusalem and setting up states of Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
1100-1135: King Henry I of England·Increases central government's efficiency, puts down baronial revolts, and begins the Norman-Plantagenet alliance.
1122: Concordat of Worms·Concordat between Pope Calixtus and German monarchy officially ends Investiture Controversy with the decision that only popes may invest bishops, but monarchs are allowed to be present.
1144: Muslim capture of Edessa·County of Edessa captured by Zengi of Mosul--beginning of Muslim counter- offensive in East.
1152-1180: Frederick I Barbarossa in Germany·Is crowned Emperor by Pope during one of six expeditions into Italy to tame Italian towns. Bases rule on feudal relations in Germany. Not able to assert claims totally on Italians.
1180-1223: Philip II Augustus of France·Increases royal power and makes monarch supreme in France. Works to end Angevin Empire, and defeats John of England at Bouvines.
1176: Myriocephalum·Manuel Comnenus (1143-1180) defeated by Seljuks of Rum under Kilij Arslan. Full scale Byzantine military decline sets in; reliance on the West increases.
1187: Hattin·Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi defeats Guy de Lusignon and then takes Jerusalem for Muslims.
1181-1226 ·St. Francis of Assisi and Franciscan orders emergence.
1190: Third Crusade.·Barbarossa of Germany dies, Richard the Lionheart gets restricted access to Holy Sites.
1198-1216: Pontificate of Innocent III·Launches and excommunicates Fourth Crusade. Insists on temporal powers of a centrally-controlled Church. Protects and crowns Frederick II. Recognizes Francis of Assisi. Holds Lateran councils.
1202-1204: Fourth Crusade·Diverted by Venice to sack Constantinople. Latin states in Byzantium emerge.
1212: Las Navas de Tolosa·Almohads defeated by Alfonso VII of Castile and Pedro II of Aragon. Most of Spain taken shortly thereafter.
1214: Battle of Bouvines·Philip Augustus defeats John of England, the Flanders Count, and Otto IV of Germany. Plantagenet possessions in France reduced to Anjou only. Great victory for the French crown.
1215-1250: Frederick II of Germany and Sicily·Protected at first by Innocent III. Becomes king of Sicily based on mother's inheritance. Rules Germany feudally, Italy centrally, though towns and later Pope oppose him. Goes on Crusade in 1229, but excommunicated for negotiating access to Jerusalem and not conquering it.
1226-1270: St. Louis IX of France·Makes administration of France much more sophisticated. Dies on his second Crusading venture.
1261: Mamluk defeat of Mongols; ·Byzantine return to Constantinople.