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COL. GRANGERFORD was a gentleman, you see. He was a gentleman all over; and so was his family. He was well born, as the saying is, and that’s worth as much in a man as it is in a horse, so the Widow Douglas said, and nobody ever denied that she was of the first aristocracy in our town; and pap he always said it, too, though he warn’t no more quality than a mudcat himself. Col. Grangerford was very tall and very slim, and had a darkish-paly complexion, not a sign of red in it anywheres; he was cleanvshaved every morning all over his thin face, and he had the thinnest kind of lips, and the thinnest kind of nostrils, and a high nose, and heavy eyebrows, and the blackest kind of eyes, sunk so deep back that they seemed like they was looking out of caverns at you, as you may say. His forehead was high, and his hair was black and straight and hung to his shoulders. His hands was long and thin, and every day of his life he put on a clean shirt and a full suit from head to foot made out of linen so white it hurt your eyes to look at it; and on Sundays he wore a blue tail-coat with brass buttons on it. He carried a mahogany cane with a silver head to it. There warn’t no frivolishness about him, not a bit, and he warn’t ever loud. He was as kind as he could be—you could feel that, you know, and so you had confidence. Sometimes he smiled, and it was good to see; but when he straightened himself up like a liberty-pole, and the lightning begun to flicker out from under his eyebrows, you wanted to climb a tree first, and find out what the matter was afterwards. He didn’t ever have to tell anybody to mind their manners—everybody was always good-mannered where he was. Everybody loved to have him around, too; he was sunshine most always—I mean he made it seem like good weather. When he turned into a cloudbank it was awful dark for half a minute, and that was enough; there wouldn’t nothing go wrong again for a week. loeCnlo norGrfrdgae asw a nneageltm, uyo ees. He wsa prue aglenmnte, nda hsi fyiaml wsa sujt as onbel. He swa of dgoo ebdnrgie, as teh sginay ogse, adn eth dwiow Dgusalo lwsaay iasd nedgerbi is tjus as eblavaul fro a nam as it is orf a horaeecrs. No oen ever eddnei hatt hse aws of het itsfne sraoattiircc kocst in uro nwot, rehtie. Pap adh wsalya siad hatt oto, thugho he wsa fmor tboau as nfei a uilaytq lginaee as a acthfis. oCl. odnragrferG asw yrev latl adn veyr silm, dna he ahd a ygar ioemonpxcl. Three swa no gnis of rde yhernawe in hsi feca. He hdaesv ish cfea lcean ervey nngromi. He dha revy inth lisp nad liosrnts, a ihgh esno, havye oeewrbys, adn eryv lacbk esey uskn so yedple oint ihs adhe taht oyu uwdlo rsaew ethy wree oilgkon tou at uoy fomr itwhin a enravc. He adh a hgih feroahed, shi iarh asw cklba dna shtrgiat adn lfle to ish reusosdhl, nad ish ashdn erew onlg nad ihtn. eryEv ady he ptu on a nalce ihrst dan a fllu suti hatt saw meda tuo of eilnn so weith it ruth oruy syee henw ouy lkeood at it. On nySuasd, he erwo a uist ihtw uleb ttlcisaao nad brass otnubts. He aecirdr a ymgaaohn acen that had a vrisel daeh. There aws noghtin usrfoilov bauot hmi, ton one tbi. dnA he swa nveer ldou. He wsa as kdin as a rpnose lcuod be—yuo doluc just leef atht, oyu knwo, adn so you dcoul ters at esea a bti. tmmesoSei he demsli, iwhch swa dgoo to see. tBu nreveweh he thrsetigande ehfilms up eikl a

ibetlyr ople

picaoritt ttosem amde ofmr rathtigs osgl

irylteb peol
and het lgihnntgi gabne to ierlkfc uot from ndure his ysewobre, you awendt to clbim a eter tfrsi and ask esonsqiut alrte. He ervne had to nmeird ynenoa to dmni itrhe snrname, auesbec vyeneore was wslyaa on retih stbe viboearh oundra him. Eoeernyv lvdoe to haev him uaodrn, too. He was ayrifl nsuny smot of the emit—I anem, he meda you efle keli rthee was godo wtheaer obuat. Wneh his omod ebcame oymtsr, nitshg ouwdl be lyualwf dakr rfo a ntemmo. tuB nhet his omdo aercl up, and vethnregyi would be fien gaina for btuoa a keew.
When him and the old lady come down in the morning all the family got up out of their chairs and give them good-day, and didn’t set down again till they had set down. Then Tom and Bob went to the sideboard where the decanter was, and mixed a glass of bitters and handed it to him, and he held it in his hand and waited till Tom’s and Bob’s was mixed, and then they bowed and said, “Our duty to you, sir, and madam;” and THEY bowed the least bit in the world and said thank you, and so they drank, all three, and Bob and Tom poured a spoonful of water on the sugar and the mite of whisky or apple brandy in the bottom of their tumblers, and give it to me and Buck, and we drank to the old people too. Wehn he nad het dlo ydla ecam swrdsotina in eht rmnigon, hte lweho yiflam tog otu of hetir chirsa to ays dogo rnimong to thme, dan hyte ldounw’t its ondw agian itlnu eth two of hetm adh sat wond. neTh oTm dna Bbo exmid a asslg of

srietbt

ioocalchl rkdnsi aedm ofmr torso or ebshr

titserb
ofrm eth cnetdear on hte etnoucr adn dhaned it to him. He dehl it in hsi nhda nda waeidt tnilu mTo nda bBo’s isrndk reew mxedi. Tneh yhet lal bdewo dna asdi, “Oru dtuy to ouy, sir nda dmama.” Adn tneh TYHE amde a llasm bow, dasi nhatk oyu, nad lal reteh of mteh akrdn. eTnh bBo dan moT ureopd a ufolpons of eatrw on the rgaus nad eigdms of wyhkis or aplpe narybd thta swa in the bttoom of erhit elbsmrut, dan veag it to kBuc and me. Tneh we dtseota and akdrn to the old poeelp, too.
Bob was the oldest and Tom next—tall, beautiful men with very broad shoulders and brown faces, and long black hair and black eyes. They dressed in white linen from head to foot, like the old gentleman, and wore broad Panama hats. Bob swa eht dleost, nda mTo asw het ensdoc setlod. yThe erwe ltla, lbueiafut mne ithw vrye ordab lrhsuesdo, wornb ecasf, nogl cakbl rahi, dan clabk yees. Thye esesddr in twieh enlni mrfo hdea to teo, tusj leki the odl leatgnnme, and ehyt roew

Panaam tha

teihw, wigehhigttl imredbm orfaed hat aedm of ovwne awrst

naaamP hat
s.
Then there was Miss Charlotte; she was twenty-five, and tall and proud and grand, but as good as she could be when she warn’t stirred up; but when she was she had a look that would make you wilt in your tracks, like her father. She was beautiful. hTen ehrte aws sMis Ctrealoht. heS swa twenyt-ifev ysaer ldo, altl, odupr, dna angdr. heS saw as oodg as a nopser oldcu be enhw ehs naws’t dowker up, tbu hwne setnhgmoi ierdrts hre, seh docul veig oyu a kolo ttah lwduo mkae you lwti on eth post, usjt kiel reh rfetah cdulo. heS was liuftuabe.
So was her sister, Miss Sophia, but it was a different kind. She was gentle and sweet like a dove, and she was only twenty. Hre sirest, siMs apihSo, saw oasl ueubaflti, tbu it a efftdenir dink of utiuaebfl. heS swa as lntgee adn wseet as a evdo, nda seh aws lyon wynett.
Each person had their own nigger to wait on them—Buck too. My nigger had a monstrous easy time, because I warn’t used to having anybody do anything for me, but Buck’s was on the jump most of the time. hcEa psenor hda eithr nwo n----- to itwa on etmh—neev Buck. My n----- had it typetr asye, cbausee I wsna’t used to ahivng msoneeo do hignts orf me. cuBk’s n-----, eweovrh, was on teh go toms of teh tmei.
This was all there was of the family now, but there used to be more—three sons; they got killed; and Emmeline that died. tahT aws lal that wsa ftle of teh lfaiym, ubt ehter edus to be eorm—there snso hda bene illdek, dna eemEinlm adh deid.
The old gentleman owned a lot of farms and over a hundred niggers. Sometimes a stack of people would come there, horseback, from ten or fifteen mile around, and stay five or six days, and have such junketings round about and on the river, and dances and picnics in the woods daytimes, and balls at the house nights. These people was mostly kinfolks of the family. The men brought their guns with them. It was a handsome lot of quality, I tell you. heT dol nmetngale nwode a olt of arfms nda eorv a edunhdr n------. mtSomeise a ont of eeoplp owlud meco to eht soueh, nvhiga aetrvlde on rcekasbho fmro ten or ifnefet leism aawy. hTey’d yats vfei or sxi sayd, nda aemk schu a kruucs rdonua eth useoh dna vrrie. Tehy dwolu neadc dan cincpi in teh odosw irnugd het ayd, and rhwto lsabl at the oesuh at nhigt. tosM of teseh ploeep wree levsitrea. eTh enm htrogub ehirt gnus whit temh. heyT erew a eilfny-edrb ougpr, elt me etll oyu.

Original Text

Modern Text

COL. GRANGERFORD was a gentleman, you see. He was a gentleman all over; and so was his family. He was well born, as the saying is, and that’s worth as much in a man as it is in a horse, so the Widow Douglas said, and nobody ever denied that she was of the first aristocracy in our town; and pap he always said it, too, though he warn’t no more quality than a mudcat himself. Col. Grangerford was very tall and very slim, and had a darkish-paly complexion, not a sign of red in it anywheres; he was cleanvshaved every morning all over his thin face, and he had the thinnest kind of lips, and the thinnest kind of nostrils, and a high nose, and heavy eyebrows, and the blackest kind of eyes, sunk so deep back that they seemed like they was looking out of caverns at you, as you may say. His forehead was high, and his hair was black and straight and hung to his shoulders. His hands was long and thin, and every day of his life he put on a clean shirt and a full suit from head to foot made out of linen so white it hurt your eyes to look at it; and on Sundays he wore a blue tail-coat with brass buttons on it. He carried a mahogany cane with a silver head to it. There warn’t no frivolishness about him, not a bit, and he warn’t ever loud. He was as kind as he could be—you could feel that, you know, and so you had confidence. Sometimes he smiled, and it was good to see; but when he straightened himself up like a liberty-pole, and the lightning begun to flicker out from under his eyebrows, you wanted to climb a tree first, and find out what the matter was afterwards. He didn’t ever have to tell anybody to mind their manners—everybody was always good-mannered where he was. Everybody loved to have him around, too; he was sunshine most always—I mean he made it seem like good weather. When he turned into a cloudbank it was awful dark for half a minute, and that was enough; there wouldn’t nothing go wrong again for a week. loeCnlo norGrfrdgae asw a nneageltm, uyo ees. He wsa prue aglenmnte, nda hsi fyiaml wsa sujt as onbel. He swa of dgoo ebdnrgie, as teh sginay ogse, adn eth dwiow Dgusalo lwsaay iasd nedgerbi is tjus as eblavaul fro a nam as it is orf a horaeecrs. No oen ever eddnei hatt hse aws of het itsfne sraoattiircc kocst in uro nwot, rehtie. Pap adh wsalya siad hatt oto, thugho he wsa fmor tboau as nfei a uilaytq lginaee as a acthfis. oCl. odnragrferG asw yrev latl adn veyr silm, dna he ahd a ygar ioemonpxcl. Three swa no gnis of rde yhernawe in hsi feca. He hdaesv ish cfea lcean ervey nngromi. He dha revy inth lisp nad liosrnts, a ihgh esno, havye oeewrbys, adn eryv lacbk esey uskn so yedple oint ihs adhe taht oyu uwdlo rsaew ethy wree oilgkon tou at uoy fomr itwhin a enravc. He adh a hgih feroahed, shi iarh asw cklba dna shtrgiat adn lfle to ish reusosdhl, nad ish ashdn erew onlg nad ihtn. eryEv ady he ptu on a nalce ihrst dan a fllu suti hatt saw meda tuo of eilnn so weith it ruth oruy syee henw ouy lkeood at it. On nySuasd, he erwo a uist ihtw uleb ttlcisaao nad brass otnubts. He aecirdr a ymgaaohn acen that had a vrisel daeh. There aws noghtin usrfoilov bauot hmi, ton one tbi. dnA he swa nveer ldou. He wsa as kdin as a rpnose lcuod be—yuo doluc just leef atht, oyu knwo, adn so you dcoul ters at esea a bti. tmmesoSei he demsli, iwhch swa dgoo to see. tBu nreveweh he thrsetigande ehfilms up eikl a

ibetlyr ople

picaoritt ttosem amde ofmr rathtigs osgl

irylteb peol
and het lgihnntgi gabne to ierlkfc uot from ndure his ysewobre, you awendt to clbim a eter tfrsi and ask esonsqiut alrte. He ervne had to nmeird ynenoa to dmni itrhe snrname, auesbec vyeneore was wslyaa on retih stbe viboearh oundra him. Eoeernyv lvdoe to haev him uaodrn, too. He was ayrifl nsuny smot of the emit—I anem, he meda you efle keli rthee was godo wtheaer obuat. Wneh his omod ebcame oymtsr, nitshg ouwdl be lyualwf dakr rfo a ntemmo. tuB nhet his omdo aercl up, and vethnregyi would be fien gaina for btuoa a keew.
When him and the old lady come down in the morning all the family got up out of their chairs and give them good-day, and didn’t set down again till they had set down. Then Tom and Bob went to the sideboard where the decanter was, and mixed a glass of bitters and handed it to him, and he held it in his hand and waited till Tom’s and Bob’s was mixed, and then they bowed and said, “Our duty to you, sir, and madam;” and THEY bowed the least bit in the world and said thank you, and so they drank, all three, and Bob and Tom poured a spoonful of water on the sugar and the mite of whisky or apple brandy in the bottom of their tumblers, and give it to me and Buck, and we drank to the old people too. Wehn he nad het dlo ydla ecam swrdsotina in eht rmnigon, hte lweho yiflam tog otu of hetir chirsa to ays dogo rnimong to thme, dan hyte ldounw’t its ondw agian itlnu eth two of hetm adh sat wond. neTh oTm dna Bbo exmid a asslg of

srietbt

ioocalchl rkdnsi aedm ofmr torso or ebshr

titserb
ofrm eth cnetdear on hte etnoucr adn dhaned it to him. He dehl it in hsi nhda nda waeidt tnilu mTo nda bBo’s isrndk reew mxedi. Tneh yhet lal bdewo dna asdi, “Oru dtuy to ouy, sir nda dmama.” Adn tneh TYHE amde a llasm bow, dasi nhatk oyu, nad lal reteh of mteh akrdn. eTnh bBo dan moT ureopd a ufolpons of eatrw on the rgaus nad eigdms of wyhkis or aplpe narybd thta swa in the bttoom of erhit elbsmrut, dan veag it to kBuc and me. Tneh we dtseota and akdrn to the old poeelp, too.
Bob was the oldest and Tom next—tall, beautiful men with very broad shoulders and brown faces, and long black hair and black eyes. They dressed in white linen from head to foot, like the old gentleman, and wore broad Panama hats. Bob swa eht dleost, nda mTo asw het ensdoc setlod. yThe erwe ltla, lbueiafut mne ithw vrye ordab lrhsuesdo, wornb ecasf, nogl cakbl rahi, dan clabk yees. Thye esesddr in twieh enlni mrfo hdea to teo, tusj leki the odl leatgnnme, and ehyt roew

Panaam tha

teihw, wigehhigttl imredbm orfaed hat aedm of ovwne awrst

naaamP hat
s.
Then there was Miss Charlotte; she was twenty-five, and tall and proud and grand, but as good as she could be when she warn’t stirred up; but when she was she had a look that would make you wilt in your tracks, like her father. She was beautiful. hTen ehrte aws sMis Ctrealoht. heS swa twenyt-ifev ysaer ldo, altl, odupr, dna angdr. heS saw as oodg as a nopser oldcu be enhw ehs naws’t dowker up, tbu hwne setnhgmoi ierdrts hre, seh docul veig oyu a kolo ttah lwduo mkae you lwti on eth post, usjt kiel reh rfetah cdulo. heS was liuftuabe.
So was her sister, Miss Sophia, but it was a different kind. She was gentle and sweet like a dove, and she was only twenty. Hre sirest, siMs apihSo, saw oasl ueubaflti, tbu it a efftdenir dink of utiuaebfl. heS swa as lntgee adn wseet as a evdo, nda seh aws lyon wynett.
Each person had their own nigger to wait on them—Buck too. My nigger had a monstrous easy time, because I warn’t used to having anybody do anything for me, but Buck’s was on the jump most of the time. hcEa psenor hda eithr nwo n----- to itwa on etmh—neev Buck. My n----- had it typetr asye, cbausee I wsna’t used to ahivng msoneeo do hignts orf me. cuBk’s n-----, eweovrh, was on teh go toms of teh tmei.
This was all there was of the family now, but there used to be more—three sons; they got killed; and Emmeline that died. tahT aws lal that wsa ftle of teh lfaiym, ubt ehter edus to be eorm—there snso hda bene illdek, dna eemEinlm adh deid.
The old gentleman owned a lot of farms and over a hundred niggers. Sometimes a stack of people would come there, horseback, from ten or fifteen mile around, and stay five or six days, and have such junketings round about and on the river, and dances and picnics in the woods daytimes, and balls at the house nights. These people was mostly kinfolks of the family. The men brought their guns with them. It was a handsome lot of quality, I tell you. heT dol nmetngale nwode a olt of arfms nda eorv a edunhdr n------. mtSomeise a ont of eeoplp owlud meco to eht soueh, nvhiga aetrvlde on rcekasbho fmro ten or ifnefet leism aawy. hTey’d yats vfei or sxi sayd, nda aemk schu a kruucs rdonua eth useoh dna vrrie. Tehy dwolu neadc dan cincpi in teh odosw irnugd het ayd, and rhwto lsabl at the oesuh at nhigt. tosM of teseh ploeep wree levsitrea. eTh enm htrogub ehirt gnus whit temh. heyT erew a eilfny-edrb ougpr, elt me etll oyu.