1. Describe the DSM’s multi-axial system of classification.

The patient’s primary diagnosis is usually recorded on axis I. Long-standing personality problems or mental retardation are recorded on axis II. Any medical conditions that might affect the patient’s psychologically are recorded on axis III. Any significant psychosocial or environmental problems experienced by the patient are recorded on axis IV. An assessment of the patient’s level of functioning is recorded on axis V.

2. What criteria are commonly used to determine whether a person might have a psychological disorder?

Three main criteria are commonly used to determine whether a person might have a psychological disorder: A. The person’s behavior violates culturally determined standards or acceptability. B. The person’s behavior is maladaptive or harmful to that person or others. C. The person suffers from distress.

3. What is the vulnerability-stress model?

The vulnerability-stress model states that disorders are caused by an interaction between biological and environmental factors. According to this model, individuals who have a biological vulnerability to a particular disorder will have the disorder only if certain environmental stressors are present.

4. What are some cognitive characteristics of depressed people?

Depressed people usually have a pessimistic explanatory style; a tendency to attribute negative events to internal, global, and stable factors; and a tendency to ruminate about problems.

5. Describe the disease model and the learning model of addiction.

The disease model holds that addiction is a disease that has to be treated medically. According to this model, an addict remains an addict forever and can function in society only by abstaining completely from drug use. The learning model holds that addiction is not a disease but a way of coping with stress. According to this model, addicts can learn to cope with stress in other ways. Once people learn to use other coping strategies, they can drink in moderation without reverting to addiction.

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