1. In operant conditioning, what is the difference between reinforcement and punishment?

Reinforcement is delivery of a consequence that increases the likelihood that a certain response will occur. Punishment is delivery of a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a certain consequence will occur.

2. Which types of intermittent reinforcement schedules produce responses that are most resistant to extinction?

Variable schedules of reinforcement produce responses that resist extinction.

3. Give an example of classical conditioning, then identify the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli and responses.

Sara has always felt calm and relaxed when listening to classical music. Lately, she’s been lighting a candle just before she listens to classical music. Now she doesn’t even need the classical music to feel relaxed. She can just light a candle. Unconditioned stimulus = classical music; unconditioned response = relaxation; conditioned stimulus = lit candle; conditioned response = relaxation.

4. Why is observational learning also called vicarious learning?

Observational learning is also called vicarious learning because it involves learning by seeing others acquire responses through classical or operant conditioning.

5. In classical conditioning, the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response is called ______, and it happens when the ______ stimulus is repeatedly presented without the ______.

Extinction; conditioned; unconditioned stimulus.

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