The fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and brother to the king of France (Francis II). He unsuccessfully courted Elizabeth. In 1576, his title changed to Duke of Anjou.
Known as Duke de Alencon until 1576, Anjou was the fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici and brother to the king of France (Francis II). He unsuccessfully courted Elizabeth.
Lawyer, Statesman, counselor to James I, early scientist and man of letters. Early in his career, Bacon's patron was the Earl of Essex.
Second wife of Henry VIII and Elizabeth's mother
Originally called Sir William Cecil, he was Elizabeth's chief Secretary of State until 1571, when she named him Lord Burleigh and replaced him with the more ruthless (albeit loyal) Francis Walsingham.
Sir Francis Drake was an English-backed pirate and later admiral who terrorized Spanish treasure galleons, circumnavigated the globe (1577–1580) and led the English fleet in crucial battles against the Spanish Armada (1588).
Elizabeth's younger half-brother, he briefly ruled England from 1547 to 1553.
Robert Devereaux (or Devereux), Earl of Essex, was one of Leicester's stepsons and became Elizabeth's favored companion, or favorite, towards the end of her life until a botched military intervention in Ireland destroyed his reputation. Essex was put to death in 1601 after leading an attempted rebellion.
A Spanish ambassador to Elizabeth's court
Serving as pope from 1572 to 1585, Gregory urged the adoption of the calendar named in his honor (the Gregorian).
Powerful European Royal family, which exercised control in Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire during Elizabeth reign. The Spanish king Philip II was a Hapsburg.
One of Elizabeth's advisors, Hatton served as Lord Chancellor of England from 1587 to 1591.
Tudor King of England from 1509 to 1547. He began the English Reformation, had six wives over the course of his life, and was father to Elizabeth I, Edward VI and Mary I. Although possessed of the bad habit of killing off those wives who did not bear male heirs, he was beloved by the people for his strength and dynamism.
First Stuart King of England and successor to Elizabeth, James I ruled from 1603 to 1625.
The title given to Sir Robert Dudley by Elizabeth in 1564. Serving as Master of the Horse and also in some military leadership positions, Leicester was the Queen's close friend and probably her lover. When he died in 1588, Elizabeth shut herself in her room until Lord Burleigh bashed open the door.
Poet and dramatist who preceded and competed with Shakespeare. An early pioneer of blank verse.
Mary Tudor, also known as "Bloody Mary" for her persecution of non- Catholics, was Elizabeth's older half-sister, and ruled England from 1553 to her death in 1558. A fervent Catholic, she was married to the future Philip II of Spain.
Mother of Mary Queen of Scots, she served as Queen Regent in Scotland and brought French forces into Scotland to fight the Protestants there.
Also known as Mary Stuart, she was the Catholic Queen of Scotland (1542–1567) and had her eyes set on the throne of England. She was ultimately beheaded in 1587. Her son, James I, succeeded Elizabeth.
Hapsburg King of Spain from 1556 to 1598, this defender of Catholicism had trouble suppressing Protestants in the Netherlands; the English navy destroyed his supposedly invincible Spanish Armada in 1588.
Pope from 1566 to 1572, Pius tirelessly (and harshly) persecuted and encouraged the persecution of Protestants throughout Europe.
The ruling family in England from 1154 to 1485
This English writer and adventurer delighted Elizabeth but was put to death by her successor, James I.
Spanish ambassador to England
Elizabethan playwright and poet who later developed the reputation as the greatest writer of all time
English poet of the Elizabethan period, famous for his lengthy allegorical poem The Faerie Queene.
The royal family that succeeded the Tudors. Members included James I and Mary Queen of Scots.
The ruling family of England from 1485 to 1603. Following the Plantagenets and preceding the Stuarts, the Tudor line included Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth the Great (Elizabeth I).
Elizabeth's chief secretary of state from 1573 to 1590, replacing Burleigh. Walsingham was a devout Protestant and a cunning spymaster.
A protestant, William the Silent fought for an independent Netherlands during the Elizabethan era.